Return to Bibliography Main Page

Return to Nicholas Johnson Home Page

Appendix VI: New York Times Stories

Note: This appendix, along with Appendix III: Nicholas Johnson Chronology, and Appendix IV: Nicholas Johnson Resume, is provided for bibliographic context. Many of the writings, speeches and tapes of events take much of their meaning from the historic context in which they occurred. Needless to say, selecting only New York Times stories as a reference base excludes most of the newspaper, magazine, TV and radio commentary about Johnson's activities, most of which took place in cities throughout the United States (and abroad) rather than in Washington, D.C., and were the subject of local, rather than national, media. However, limiting the source to the Times both makes the task more manageable, and also utilizes the newspaper files most widely available in full text to potential users. The New York Times Index provides abstracts of stories; some digital electronic online services (such as Westlaw) also use that form (and source); others (such as Lexis) use it for stories prior to the date when the full text of stories is available. The notation "[FT]" at the end of a citation indicates that the full text of the story is available from the Lexis/Nexis service.


"Lawyer, 29, Will Get Top Maritime Post," New York Times, Feb. 20, 1964, p. 58, col. 3 (Named Federal Maritime Administrator).

Horne, George, "Next Maritime Chief Calls for 'Fresh Viewpoint,'" New York Times, Feb. 23, 1964, p. 86, col. 4 (Interview, portrait).

"Senate Confirms New Shipping Aid," New York Times, Feb. 29, 1964, p. 48, col. 2 (Senate committee and Senate).

"U.S. Shipping Head Sworn by Hodges," New York Times, Mar. 3, 1964, p. 69, col. 5 (Maritime Administrator Johnson and Hodges conference with President Johnson; report Cargill will be able to adhere to 50-50 rule if U.S.S.R lets larger American vessels dock. Sworn in).

"U.S. to Seek Cuts in Ship Subsidies," New York Times, April 8, 1964, p. 87, col. 1 (Administrator Johnson urges extension of Maritime Administrator power to grant 55% subsidy aid for new ships, 60% for conversions, House Representative subcommittee; stresses aid is subsidy for shipyards not operators; says administration maps new formula to compute subsidy based on average of low-cost yards).

"Shipbuilding Plan Hailed by U.S. Aide," New York Times, April 25, 1964, p. 58, col.7 (Prudential president Skouras signs pact with Bethlehem vice president Strohmeier for two ships; Administrator Johnson comments).

"Panel Will Weigh Cargo Grievances," New York Times, April 26, 1964, sec. 5, p. 20, col. 4 (Ten named to grievance committee, headed by Administrator Johnson).

"United Seaman's Service Reports Increase in Aid to U.S. Sailors," New York Times, May 24, 1964, sec. 5, p. 21, col. 3 (Annual report; election; Administrator Gano again president, Administrator Johnson honorary chairman).

"Tramp-Ship Lines Deplore 'Abuses,'" New York Times, May 25, 1964, p. 66, col. 1 (American Maritime Association-American Tramp Shipowners Association report to Administrator Johnson charges foreign-aid cargo recipients abuse tramp shippers; urges U.S. tighten administration, rather than revising rates, to protect U.S. operators).

"More Nuclear Ships Predicted for U.S.," New York Times, June 6, 1964, p. 52, col. 3 (Administrator Johnson sees more nuclear ships in next few years, speech aboard Savannah).

Morrow, Edward A. "Shipping Industry is Split Over Italy," New York Times, June 6, 1964, p. 52, col. 1 (Industry split on Italian Government request that Italian ships carry half of Export-Import Bank-financed cargoes; Administrator Johnson asks opinions of grievance committee on administration of U.S. cargo preference laws; American Maritime Association, Seafarers International Union, International Longshoreman Association oppose waiver of U.S. law; National Maritime Union, American Merchant Marine Institute favor waiver).

Horne, George. "U.S. Hopes the Savannah Can Extend Visits," New York Times, June 7, 1964, sec. 5, p. 21, col. 2, 3 (Maritime officials say U.S. would welcome foreign investment for Savannah cruises; Administrator Johnson reports officials pleased by visitors reaction, NYC; cargo being loaded for Bremerhaven trip; illustration; chief engineer S. D. Wheatley discusses Savannah safety factor; discusses 'scram,' when reactor is shut down and diesel generators put into operation).

Horne, George. "U.S. Finding Irk the Ship Industry," New York Times, Aug. 16, 1964, p. 94, col. 1 (U.S. shipping industry irked by Commerce Department study stressing almost total dependence of subsidized lines on Government-sponsored cargoes and by recently expressed views of Secretary Hodges and Administrator Johnson questioning value of subsidies; American Steam Ship Lines Committee president McNeil charges subsidies do not achieve parity).

"Subsidies Failing, Ocean Lines Told," New York Times, Sept. 17, 1964, p. 85, col. 1 (Maritime Administrator Johnson says current U.S. subsidy program is failing, speech, Los Angeles Propeller Club; urges incentives for subsidized lines to operate efficiently).

"Subsidies for Shipping," New York Times, Sept. 29, 1964, p. 42, col. 1 (Editorial urges Johnson to seek subsidy cuts).

Bamberger, Werner. "Added Subsidies on Ships Doubted," New York Times, Oct. 3, 1964, p. 58, col. 1 (Administrator Johnson doubts new subsidies can be won now, interview; urges economies with present aid; notes importance of unsubsidized American fleet; calls for industrial improvements, speech, Merchant Marine conference).

Davies, Lawrence. "Stronger Fleet Urged on Coast," New York Times, Oct. 4, 1964, sec. 5, p. 22, col. 6 (Conference urges Maritime Administration enforce all cargo preference laws, now handled by many agencies; Western ship building Association submits ten-point program including Commerce Department policy that U.S. fleet carry 50% of foreign trade, to protect and develop U.S. merchant marine as part of national defense, president Farr letter to Johnson; cites British policy; details).

Morrow, Edward A. "Curran Attacks Ship Modernizing," New York Times, Nov. 18, 1964, p. 93, col. 3 (National Maritime Union president Curran charges automation will not solve problems of dying fleet, speech, Propeller Club conference on shipping automation, Baltimore; scores Eisenhower indifference while President; Administrator Johnson holds better application of automation may permit U.S. to maintain more ships and jobs).

Bamberger, Werner. "Maritime Woes Await Congress," New York Times, Nov. 22, 1964, sec. 5, p. 22, col. 5 (Management, labor and Government reports examine maritime issues set for Congressional action; Administrator Johnson, Representative Bonner urge study of operating subsidies, Great Lakes aid; Seafarers International Union president Hall, American Merchant Marine Institute vice president Shapiro outline demands; National Maritime Union president Curran seeks transportation department with Cabinet rank. Administrator Johnson, Representative Bonner urge that Congress give priority to use of nuclear power in commercial shipping).

Horne, George. "Ship Industry Finds Government Getting Tough With Everybody," New York Times, Dec. 13, 1964, sec. 5, p. 19, col. 1,2 (Shippers score growing government severity toward industry; cite recent criticism by Senator Douglas, Secretary Hodges; Administrator Johnson comments; subsidy system described. Portrait).

Horne, George. "U.S. Stresses Cuts in Cost of Ships," New York Times, Dec. 22, 1964, p. 58, col. 1 (Administrator Johnson announces Government economic drive; Subsidy Board approves Delta Steam Ship plans to build five freighters and American President Lines plans for four ships, but cuts crew sizes in each case).


Horne, George. "Union to Discuss Crew-Size Issue," New York Times, Jan. 2, 1965, p. 34, col. 6 (International Longshoreman Association president Gleason calls meeting of union leaders to map drive against Maritime Administrator Johnson's effort to decide crew sizes on automated ships; National Maritime Union president Curran has charged Government interference with bargaining rights).

Horne, George. "U. S. Planning Curb on Ship Subsidies," New York Times, Jan. 16, 1965, p. 54, col. 1 (Administrator Johnson warns government will cut subsidized lines payments to seamen's welfare and security funds; Subsidy Board will demand details to justify subsidy requests).

"Maritime Agency Scored by Union," New York Times, Feb. 1, 1965, p. 45, col. 6 (Marine Engineers Beneficial Association president Calhoon charges Maritime Administration seeks to control maritime manning scales, letter to Administrator Johnson).

Horne, George. "U.S. Hails Own Red-Tape Cuts But Shipping Men Call for More," New York Times, Jan. 8, 1965, p. 50, col. 5 (Maritime labor committee message to President Johnson scores Maritime Administration policy; charges Administration failed to consult with labor, interfered with collective bargaining; Administrator Johnson denies charges; asks Maritime Administration observer board disputed ships to determine crew needs).

Bamberger, Werner. "Shipping Policy of U.S. Criticized," New York Times, Feb. 9, 1965, p. 73, col. 6 (Pacific American Steam Ship Association president Dewey warns U. S. against policy changes that do not include incentives for American shipping to remain under U.S. flag, report on conference with Administrator Johnson).

"Shipping Policies of U.S. Assailed," New York Times, Feb. 10, 1965, p. 81, col. 1 (Administrator Johnson, in critique of U.S. policy, charges few yards use subsidy aid, speech, New Orleans; holds U.S. yards least competitive of

American industries; says preservation of shipbuilding jobs with subsidies may result in loss of seagoing jobs. Administrator in broad critique of U.S. shipping policy, queries validity of subsidies, speech, New Orleans; charges policy has had little effect on merchant marine growth.)

Bamberger, Werner. "Tramp-Ship Trade Defends Itself," New York Times, Feb. 22, 1965, p. 40, col. 1 (American Tramp Shipowners Association chairman Smith scores Administrator Johnson criticism of industry; warns against wholesale scrapping of current laws. House Representative subcommittee approves one-year extension of 55% maximum Government subsidy; Representative Rogers deplores industry condition; Administrator Johnson warns USSR is building 600 merchant ships compared with 40 in U.S.; defends U.S. yards but notes handicap of high labor costs; American Merchant Marine Institute president Casey decries Johnson proposal to eliminate building subsidies for liners).

"Maritime Chief Chided on Views," New York Times, Mar. 4, 1965, p. 62, col. 6 (American Merchant Marine Institute president Casey charges Administrator Johnson proposals, including end to subsidies for liners and possible subsidies for bulk carriers, could kill fleet).

Horne, George. "Savannah Hailed at Galveston on Return From Cruise Abroad," New York Times, Mar. 11, 1965, p. 66, col. 2 (Merchant ship projects: Savannah greeted, Galveston, Texas, after year of visiting foreign ports; Administrator Johnson says Government weights next assignment).

"Savanna's Officers Hailed for 'Fine' Work on Voyage," New York Times, April 3, 1965, p. 58, col. 5 (Johnson praises Savannah's officers for service during tour).

Horne, George. "Government May Upset Shipping's Applecart," New York Times, April 4, 1965, sec. 5, p. 26, col. 1,2 article on Administrator Johnson drive to improve subsidy system and run merchant fleet efficiently; his proposals reviewed. Lake Carriers Association president Hirshfield urges U.S. Maritime Administration act to maintain adequate U.S. lakes fleet, letter to Administrator Johnson; cites decline from 365 ships during World War II to 228 now; reports Canadian ships have taken 85% of U.S.-Canadian lakes trade).

Devlin, John C. "U.S. Envisions a 100 M.P.H. Vessel," New York Times, May 8, 1965, p. 62, col. 7 (Administrator Johnson says shipping policy must be set within framework of special U.S. advantages (available capital, advanced technology and huge Government outlays for development of new systems) to regain preeminent position for U.S. in world shipping, speech to American Society of Mechanical Engineers).

"A Court is Urged in Dock Disputes," New York Times, May 13, 1965, p. 73, col. 1 (Administrator Johnson holds Maritime Administration interested in flexibility, less bureaucratic interference, more competition on subsidized trade routes, speech, Boston).

Morrow, Edward A. "Study Notes Gain for Liner Fleet," New York Times, May 20, 1965, p. 86, col. 5 (Administrator Johnson warns strike threatens entire merchant marine, message to Marine Engineers Beneficial Association president Calhoon; warns of cargo and passenger diversion to foreign-flag ships; notifies Secretaries Wirtz and Connor; Marine Engineers Beneficial Association dissatisfaction with contract talks linked to walkout).

Morrow, Edward A. "Soviet Described As Gaining at Sea," New York Times, May 28, 1965, p. 66, col. 6 (Representative Rooney scores Maritime Administration and Administrator Johnson, speech, Seafarers International Union convention; urges Administration request more subsidy funds).

Morrow, Edward A. "Seafarers Agree to Extend Talks," June 2, 1965, p. 89, col. 6 (Seafarers International Union affiliates SUP, MFOWW, MCS and Atlantic, Gulf, Lakes and Inland Waters District offer to extend contract talks for 60 days; Seafarers International Union president Hall to send proposal to other unions; Seafarers International Union report blames West Coast impasse on refusal to answer labor-management queries on policy; Administrator Johnson sees current bargaining crucial to U.S. fleet, speech, Seafarers International Union convention. Administrator Johnson hails Secretary Connor as 'friend' of merchant fleet, speech, Seafarers International Union convention; says Connor seeks more productive use of subsidies).

Horne, George. "Ultimatum Given U.S. by a Shipline," New York Times, June 3, 1965, p. 69, col. 6 (States Marine Lines threatens to transfer its ships and those of affiliate Isthmian Lines to foreign registration unless U.S. acts on subsidy application pending since '55; Administrator Johnson reports application under study).

"83% of Nation's Ship Subsidies Go to Reimburse Wage Outlays," New York Times, June 6, 1965, sec. 5, p. 25, col. 6 (Issues Maritime Administration handbook reviewing subsidy program: 83% of $200-million subsidies go for wages; 15 subsidized lines, operating 317 ships, must offer services to Government in return for aid).

Bamberger, Werner. "Ship Construction Subsidies Put on Basis of Vessel Productivity," New York Times, June 25, 1965, p. 66, col. 7 (Maritime Administration to assign future building aid according to 'relative productivity' or maximum carrying capacity and greatest potential financial return; Administrator Johnson explains policy, speech, Newport News; says Government expects national shipping capability in return for aid).

Morrow, Edward A. "Ship Subsidy Cost Called Excessive," New York Times, July 5, 1965, p. 30, col. 2 (General Accounting Office reports Maritime Administration permitted estimated $1 million in unwarranted costs in construction subsidy program; Administrator Johnson terms figure unrealistic; report held Maritime Administration failed to implement fully its 'value engineering' program of advising operators and ship builders on cost cutting).

"Ship Men Score Maritime Chief," New York Times, July 12, 1965, p. 54, col. 5 (American Merchant Marine Institute president Casey charges Administrator Johnson with downgrading merchant marine, letter to him; says that in July two speeches in San Francisco Johnson attacked subsidies and questioned need for merchant fleet; holds '36 Merchant Marine Act imposes obligation to maintain strong fleet on Administrator. Casey charges Administrator Johnson with 'abysmal lack of understanding' of strike, letter to him; holds subsidized lines in American Merchant Marine Institute are fighting for merchant marine survival; American Merchant Marine Institute sends letter to striking engineers urging they re-examine reasons for strike).

Morrow, Edward A. "Curran Attacks U.S. Maritime Chief," New York Times, July 13, 1965, p. 66, col. 6 (National Maritime Union president Curran calls for Administrator Johnson resignation, wire to President Johnson; voices doubt of ability to administer Merchant Marine Act. Curran calls for Administrator Johnson resignation, wire to President Johnson; American Merchant Marine Institute and Marine Engineers Beneficial Association meet; no progress).

Horne, George. "Shippers Cancel Six More Sailings," New York Times, July 15, 1965, p. 58, col. 1, 5 (Queen Elizabeth sails with 76 passengers from liner United States; American Merchant Marine Institute calls off negotiations as result of Subsidy Board action; Casey says further talks would be 'fruitless'; Administrator Johnson, in sending board ruling to steam ship lines, says both sides are free to reach own contract terms; Calhoon, echoing Johnson, urges settlement; U.S. Lines, Moore-McCormack and Grace cancel sailings of six liners; Defense Department asks shipping industry to supply 28 fast ships to augment Navy sea-lift capacity in South East Asia; steamship lines have pledged 28 to MSTS for charter, some under Marine Engineers Beneficial Association strike ban; Calhoon says union has cleared legitimate military ships).

Horne, George. "Military Sea-Lift Getting Started," New York Times, July 17, 1965, p. 50, col. 1 (Unions free ships to carry military cargoes; mediators and negotiators seek clarification of Maritime Subsidy Board rulings rejecting some union gains since '61; Sheldon and Steinberg demand American Merchant Marine Institute resume talks with MMP and American Radio Association; Marine Engineers Beneficial Association protests board rulings, conference with Administrator Johnson; signs pact with Mystic Steam Ship Company).

"Johnson Scores Shipping Neglect," New York Times, July 21, 1965, p. 74, col. 5 (Administrator Johnson reports he and Connor deeply concerned; Curran urges U.S. officials not to permit delay in moving vital supplies; says all unions except Marine Engineers Beneficial Association will sail in emergency; Seafarers International Union president Hall charges some company officials thwart accordance).

"News and Notes About Transport," New York Times, July 27, 1965, p. 66, col. 7 (Administrator Johnson request for policy proposals, urges board put automation savings into expanding U.S. merchant marine).

"Washington Asks Ship Lines for 5-Year Build Proposal," New York Times, Aug. 1, 1965, p. 78, col. 1 (Maritime Subsidy Board asks subsidized and nonsubsidized lines submit proposals for five-year plan to build ships with construction differential subsidies; Administrator Johnson denies policy change).

Horne, George. "Gloom Deepens in Tie-Up of Ships," New York Times, Aug. 4, 1965, p. 41, col. 1, 2, 4 (Idled National Maritime Union seamen seek jobs; National Maritime Union has paid $500,000 in benefits; Mrs. Fayet-Leroy ends hunger strike after unions agree to lift picket line to allow dockers to unload art cargo; Administrator Johnson reports strike has cost $88 million, $1.8 million daily; Calhoon charges American Merchant Marine Institute rejection of Wirtz plan means strike is now lockout).

Horne, George. "Reedy Gets Role in Ship Efforts," New York Times, Aug. 5, 1965, p. 58, col. 5 (G. E. Reedy named special President troubleshooter; conferences with Wirtz, Connor and Administrator Johnson; Connor reports Federal policy on subsidies worked out in conference with Casey and shippers F. A. Nemec, W. B. Rand and W. J. McNeil).

"Maritime Administration Head is Praised by Seafarers Union," New York Times, Aug. 21, 1965, p. 48, col. 6 Seafarers International Union public praises Administrator Johnson for getting shipping industry out of 'stagnant waters').

"U. S. Aide Opposes Cruise Licensing," New York Times, Aug. 25, 1965, p. 77, col. 5 (Administrator Johnson opposes three bills authorizing Commerce or Treasury Secretary to license foreign-flag ships in U.S. cruise trade; holds such law would reduce number of ships, House Representative committee hearing; backs bill setting financial standards for operators; Chairman Harllee says bills would solve problems raised by 1963 cruise cancellations which stranded many passengers).

Horne, George. "New U.S. Maritime Policy Paper Studied," New York Times, Oct. 1, 1965, (supplemental), p. 4, col. 3 (Government interagency report to President Johnson, directed by Under Secretary Boyd and released unofficially, proposes radical changes in U.S. subsidy program; would phase out U.S.-flag passenger ships, extend subsidies to fleet of bulk carriers and limit U.S. fleet to about 1,000 ships; details).

"Maritime Chief Urges Cut in Cargo Charges in Port," New York Times, Oct. 14, 1965, p. 69, col. 2 (U.S. Administrator Johnson urges cost reduction effort where greatest savings can be found, speech American Port Authorities Association).

"Maritime Unit to Scrutinize World Cartel Rate," New York Times, Oct. 15, 1965, p. 90, col. 6 (Administrator Johnson criticizes subsidy system, U.S. Propeller Club panel. Moore-McCormack Lines and IBM plan computer system for swift audits of co financial position; Administrator Johnson charges U.S. maritime industry neglects research and development).

"'Landlubber' role of U.S.Aide Scored," New York Times, Oct. 19, 1965, p. 85, col. 8 (Admiral Wilson charges Administrator Johnson takes 'landlubber approach' to maritime problems, speech, U.S. Propeller Club).

Horne, George. "And Then His Line Really Was Busy," New York Times, Oct. 21, 1965, p. 94, col. 1 (Maritime Administration phone number for employees to hear recorded defense of Boyd report by Administrator Johnson leaked; shipping industry, Wirtz and 11 members of advisory committee protest; reference to Wirtz later deleted from message).

Callahan, John P. "Maritime Chief Answers Critics," New York Times, Oct. 30, 1965, p. 70, col. 5 (Administrator Johnson scores ship operators negative response to Boyd report; cites report recommendations; Rear Admiral James replies).

Callahan, John P "U.S. Aide Uphold New ship Policy," New York Times, Oct. 31, 1965, p. 88, col. 2 (Boyd defends report, says it aims at strengthening fleet).

Horne, George. "U.S. Order Upsets American Export," New York Times, Nov. 11, 1965, p. 93, col. 1 (Administrator Johnson rejects American Export Isbrandtsen request to expand replacement program from three to six ships; assures yard it will keep contract, its first commercial building order in years; line president DeSmedt regrets decision, implies line may let contract elsewhere).

Horne, George. "Maritime Leaders Assailed at Parley," New York Times, Nov. 18, 1965, p. 94, col. 6 (Administrator Johnson urges U.S. industry spur productivity and research to compete in world market. Ex-Senator J. M. Butler charges reporter's proposals herald doom of merchant fleet; Administrator Johnson defends proposals as only realistic answer to industry problem; voices concern that report is not well-studied or understood).

"Ship Line Outlays By U.S. Analyzed," New York Times, Nov. 29, 1965, p. 70, col. 1 (Maritime Administration survey for Douglas subcommittee shows $200-million annual subsidy program ranks third in Government payments to U.S. shipping; Administrator Johnson letter notes Government impact on shipping industry totals $1 billion; other data).

"Maritime Policy: Pro and Con Sides," New York Times, Dec. 7, 1965, p. 93, col. 7 (Administrator Johnson defends Government policy, speech, convention).

Bamberger, Werner. "Curran Foresees Crew Shortages," New York Times, Dec. 24, 1965, p. 39, col. 1 (National Maritime Union president Curran links critical shortage of skilled seamen in part to attacks by Government officials on merchant marine, wire to President Johnson; scores Secretary Connor and Administrator Johnson especially).


Horne, George. "Program Urged for New Vessels," New York Times, Jan. 13, 1966, p. 77, col. 5 (Administrator Johnson urges Government-industry 'massive' ship replacement program, speech, New York Propeller Club; announces five-year research and development plan aimed at industrial problems of 1975; urges building ships abroad after Federal aid funds for domestic buildings are used up).

Bamberger, Werner. "Curran Questions Fleets Adequacy," New York Times, Feb. 20, 1966, sec. 5, p. 13, col. 5 (National Maritime Union president Curran charges Secretary McNamara withholds data on number of ships needed for Vietnam transport because U.S. fleet is inadequate; scores Administrator Johnson for accepting Defense Department estimates).

"Student Sea Officers Back Vietnam Effort," New York Times, Feb. 21, 1966, p. 77, col. 6 (Seniors ask early graduation to ease officer shortage caused by Vietnam war; Rear Admiral McLintock repeatedly recommends change to Administrator Johnson).

"Ships Too Strong? U.S. Seeks Answer," New York Times, Mar. 8, 1966, p. 78, col. 6 (Administrator Johnson orders Naval Architects Society study of whether there is excessive structural steel on U. S. - flag ships; Great Lakes carrier E. L. Ryerson (Inland Steel Company) first subject; Lake Carriers Association to participate; American Shipping Bureau may modify specifications as result).

"Maritime Chief to Tour Far East," New York Times, Mar. 18, 1966, p. 77, col. 1 (Administrator Johnson, in capacity as National Shipping Authorization director, will inspect U. S. maritime operations in Vietnam area; authorization now operates 86 ships withdrawn from reserve fleet).

"Maritime Chief Warns on Fleet," New York Times, Mar. 23, 1966, p. 93, col. 8 (Administrator Johnson lists key maritime problems which must be solved if U.S. is to have viable fleet, House Representative subcommittee; terms present fleet physically and economically obsolete).

"Maritime Chief Irks Coast Union," New York Times, April 12, 1966, p. 78, col. 1 (Pacific Metal Trades Council executive secretary Rotell charges Administrator Johnson criticized American labor costs in 'secret' news conference at U. S. Embassy, Tokyo, in March, letter to Japanese newspaper; charges Johnson also said U. S. may order high-speed liners in foreign countries, including Japan; U. S. Embassy denies secrecy).

"Maritime Chief Criticized Anew," New York Times, April 14, 1966, p. 78, col. 1 (Administrator Johnson to defend alleged statements to return from Far East; Representative Garmatz, Boilermakers Council director Groton protest to Connor).

"Remarks Clarified by Maritime Chief," New York Times, April 15, 1966, p. 60, col. 4 (Johnson denies committing U. S. to build ships abroad, message from Saigon. Administrator Johnson inspects South Vietnam port facilities).

"War Crew Needs Stir Controversy," New York Times, May 8, 1966, p. 81, col. 6 (Administrator Johnson denies shortage exists because of Vietnam sealift, House Representative subcommittee hearing; says there are more seamen than jobs; American Steam Ship lines Committee chairman Clark disagrees; holds Vietnam war strains U. S. manpower; House Representative Merchant Marine Committee asks Merchant Marine Academy graduate 198 seniors early, letter to Secretary Connor).

Horne, George. "Ship Man Defends Marine Act of '36," New York Times, May 9, 1966, p. 77, col. 5 (Administrator James defends 1936 Merchant Marine Act; Administrator Johnson has urged new approach to maritime policy to encourage nonsubsidized lines; charges present fleet is obsolete and uneconomical).

"U. S. Aide Trace Plight of Fleet," New York Times, May 10, 1966, p. 90, col. 1 (Administrator Johnson charges U. S. protection of shipbuilding industry may destroy merchant fleet because subsidies are insufficient to allow operators to build enough ships and do not even substantially aid yards; notes American building prices are about 220% of world rates; outlines three alternative policies.)

"Labor Man Scores U.S. Shipping Aide," New York Times, May 17, 1966, p. 93, col. 6 (Iron Shipbuilders Council director Groton charges Administrator Johnson discredits Johnson Administration and U. S., letter to President Johnson; cites recent statements about shipbuilding industry and proposals to build ships abroad).

"Lake Trade Ties to be Continued," New York Times, May 20, 1966, p. 93, col. 6 (Administrator Johnson announces Great Lakes overseas trade routes will be continued, speech, Chicago Propeller Club; sees need for American ship system tailored to lakes trade; notes bids by Waterman Steam Ship and Prudential to operate subsidized service).

"Congressman is Honored," New York Times, May 27, 1966, p. 22, col. 8 (Administrator Johnson honors Representative Garmatz for services to merchant marine).

Horne, George. "Luckenbach Asks Research Center," New York Times, June 6, 1966, p. 82, col. 6 (E. F. Luckenbach Jr. proposes Center for Maritime Studies at Webb Institute to develop shipping as 'marketable commodity,' spur maritime progress and innovations; seeks to counter criticism of industry by Congress and Administrator Johnson; asks management and labor support and matching Federal funds; Webb president Alexander backs proposal).

"3 Ship Groups Ask to Pool Building," New York Times, June 8, 1966, p. 93, col. 1 (Maritime Administration announces three groups of subsidized lines will build in blocks, from standardized designs, as economic move; Administrator Johnson pleased; American Export Isbrandtsen and U. S. Lines plan 13 containerships; American President, Pacific Far East and Prudential plan 16 or 19 lighter-carrying craft; Farrell, Grace and Moore-McCormack plan roll-on-roll-off ships).

"Curran Assails Maritime Policy," New York Times, June 9, 1966, p. 93, col. 7 (Curran charges policies of McNamara and Administrator Johnson aid USSR plans to dominate world shipping, House Representative committee; pledges National Maritime Union help for automation program designed to aid fleet; offers program to restore fleet to position called for by 1936 law).

Horne, George. "Conner Praises National Maritime Union's Education Program," New York Times, June 16, 1966, p. 93, col. 1, 2 (Admiral Fahy charges U. S. overemphasizes aerospace industry at expense of shipping, speech, Navy League seapower symposium; holds Vietnam war demonstrates shipping shortages; National Maritime Union president Curran asserts union faith in merchant marine, speech, NYC; blames troubles mainly on Federal officials; charges Administrator Johnson does not carry out mandate to promote fleet; Johnson replies.)

Bamberger, Werner. "Gilbride Assails Maritime Policy," New York Times, June 16, 1966, p. 93, col. 1, 2 (Todd Shipyards president Gilbride charges state of fleet is national disgrace, speech committee meeting; sees leadership lacking).

"Regulator Walks the Plank," Editorial, New York Times, June 20, 1966, p. 32, col. 1 (Editorial removal of Administrator Johnson from post blames shipping industry and unions that opposed his reform efforts; doubts President Johnson's eagerness to modernize industry).

Bamberger, Werner. "Shipping Leaders See Slow Period," New York Times, June 21, 1966, p. 86, col. 5 (Year of inactivity on Federal policy seen in wake of Johnson departure; industry wish for interim appointee noted).

Gould, Jack. "He's Miscast as a People's Champion," New York Times, June 26, 1966, sec. 2, p. 15, col. 1 (J. Gould sees appointments of Commissioner Hyde as FCC chairman and of Nicholas Johnson as FCC Commissioner reflecting limited regard in which FCC has been held by various administrations; says Hyde will avoid controversy, is well known advocate of scant control; urges FCC duties be confined to common carriers with broadcasting supervision shifted to new agency).

Gould, Jack. "The President's Stand on the FCC, Education and Vietnam," New York Times, July 3, 1966, sec. 2, p. 11, col. 1 (Gould on President Johnson motives in appointing Hyde and Nick Johnson).

"Satellite Proposal Pushed by Friendly," New York Times, Oct. 25, 1966, p. 90, col. 8 (F. W. Friendly lauds Ford Foundation proposal, speech, National Education Broadcasters; Commissioner Johnson says FCC plans hearing soon).

"FCC Member Questions Proposed Merger of ITT and ABC," New York Times, Nov. 4, 1966, p. 78, col. 4 (FCC Commissioners Bartley, Cox and Johnson ask ITT for detailed data about company's foreign interests for possible conflicts in merger, letter to company president Geneen; say data were not discussed at oral hearing; ITT 'happy to comply,' ABC silent).

"FCC Seeking Data on ITT," New York Times, Nov. 24, 1966, p. 74, col. 1 (Commissioners Cox and Johnson ask further data on ITT foreign operations that may influence news coverage; say data given by ITT on holdings in 118 nations are 'unclear and incomplete').

"Integrity of ABC Pledged in Merger," New York Times, Dec. 10, 1966, p. 74, col. 5 (Geneen assures Cox and Johnson that merger will not affect ABC news coverage).


"F.C.C. is Rebuked by New Member," New York Times, Mar. 8, 1967, p. 91, col. 2 (FCC, five-two, renews licenses for 206 stations in Florida, Puerto Rico and Virgin Islands; Commissioners Johnson and Cox opposed; Johnson charges FCC adopts 'complacent and comfortable hear-no-evil, see-no-evil' policy; scores FCC for ignoring public interest).

"I.T.T. Case Draws More Criticism," New York Times, Mar. 15, 1967, p. 65, col. 7 (Commissioner Johnson revised dissent to FCC approval of merger again scores FCC and asks more hearings).

Gould, Jack. "Lively Impatience with the Status Quo," New York Times, Mar. 26, 1967, sec. 2, p. 29, col. 1 (J. Gould reviews FCC Commissioner Johnson record as dissenter).

Graham, Fred. "3 Reporters Allege Pressures by I.T.T. About Their Coverage of Its Merger Plan with ABC," New York Times, April 21, 1967, p. 45, col. 4 (E. Shanahan (New York Times) says ITT executive E. J. Gerity, as part of ITT 'badgering' her over coverage of ITT-ABC merger plan, said FCC Commissioner Johnson and Senator Nelson plan bill to forbid newspaper ownership of radio stations; FCC, Nelson denials).

"Broadcasts Widen Negro-White Gap, Says FCC Official," New York Times, Nov. 22, 1967, p. 95, col. 4 (FCC Commissioner Johnson charges nation's broadcasters are building 'more walls than bridges' between white and black communities, National Association of Broadcasters regional conference; urges they lead massive national effort to close gap; suggests similar coverage of news events in Negro and white areas).


"10 Top Young Men Named by Jaycees," New York Times, Jan. 14, 1968, p. 26, col. 1 (Names ten outstanding young men of 1967).

"Member of FCC Says Cable Television Film Distorts His Role," New York Times, Feb. 9, 1968, p. 94, col. 1 (Communications Commission Commissioner Johnson complains to National Cable TV Association about his appearance in documentary film about cable television; claims he was not allowed to pass judgment on role before release as was promised; says film makes him look like 'huckster' for cable television).

"2 F.C.C. Commissioners Assail Agency on Renewal of Licenses," New York Times, June 3, 1968, p. 53, col. 2 (Commissioners Cox and Johnson score FCC policy of making license renewals automatic except in rare cases; report their study of Oklahoma broadcasting practices shows stations fail to provide sufficient local public affairs programs; their 1-1/2-year fight against policy noted; FCC, 4-2, rebuffs them on Oklahoma renewal case; Chairman Hyde doubts FCC can be persuaded to impose stricter controls; says program responsibility rests with operator, not FCC).

"The F.C.C.'s Obligation," New York Times, June 11, 1968, p. 46, col. 1 (Editorial backs Cox-Johnson campaign).

"Broadcasters' Head Rebukes 2 Critics," New York Times, June 12, 1968, p. 95, col. 3 (National Broadcasters Association President Wasilewski scores Cox and Johnson charges).

"4 on FCC Defend License Renewal," New York Times, July 13, 1968, p. 52, col. 8 ( FCC Chairman Hyde and three other members defend WLBT ruling, reply to Johnson and Cox; latter two again score ruling).

"...And Station Licensing," New York Times, July 19, 1968, p. 34, col. 1 (Editorial deplores FCC renewal of WLBT license, lauds stands taken by United Church of Christ and Commissioners Johnson and Cox).

Gal, Harold. "FCC Rebukes NBC in Huntley-Livestock Case," New York Times, Sept. 14, p. 63, col. 1 (FCC Commissioner Johnson recommends hearing on license renewal for NBC-operated station, dissenting opinion in FCC decision rebuking NBC for not revealing TV commentator C. Huntley's financial interest in livestock after he broadcast criticisms of Federal meat inspection rules).

Windeler, Robert. "Public TV Hears It is Now of Age," New York Times, Nov. 21, 1968, p. 95, col. 4 (Commissioner Johnson says educational radio and TV is now $200-million-a-year business and is developing audiences, speech, National Association of Educational Broadcasters convention; both he and Ford Foundation president Bundy urge broadcasters to be more provocative in programming).

"Violence Panel Told CBS News Staged Clashes," New York Times, Dec. 20, 1968, p. 62, col. 3 (FCC Chairman Hyde says Government cannot control violence on TV without violating free speech right. President's Commission Committee on Causes and Prevention of Violence; Commissioner Johnson says those who feel they or their children are victims of injurious programming should sue network; Committee member A. E. Jenner charges FCC never monitors programs but waits for complaints).

Windeler, Robert. "Networks Accused of Censoring News Coverage," New York Times, Dec. 23, 1968, p. 79, col. 1 (Public Broadcast Laboratory offers 2-hour program on TV news reporting; Senator Pastore and FCC Commissioner Johnson charge three network news division compete at expense of public interest and fail to cover events affecting economic interests of TV industry and its advertisers; Johnson charges conflicts of interests; cites NBC parent RCA's income from defense pacts, cites cigarette and auto industries exertion of de facto censorship of news detrimental to those industries; heads of news division E. Lower (ABC), R. S. Salant (CBS) and R. Frank (NBC) appear as well as newsmen D. Brinkley, W. Cronkite, F. Reynolds, M. Wallace and S. Vanocur; some reply to Pastore-Johnson charges; Reynolds, Johnson and others say TV tends to give too much influence to New York Times; Pastore and Johnson see improvements coming only from industry not through legislation; other details. Commissioner Johnson charges TV does not inform public of hazards of cigarette smoking because cigarette industry provides 10% of broadcasters' ad revenues, TV interview).


Morris, John D. "Washington Club Faces Racial Suit," New York Times, Mar. 6, 1969, p. 26, col. 2 (FCC member Nicholas Johnson and Senator Church among nine-member group filing suit to force removal of club ban on Negro guests; Secretary Rogers and Senator R. P. Griffin back group; ACLU to aid fight).

Lydon, Christopher. "An F.C.C. Commissioner Denies Soliciting License Challenges," New York Times, June 7, 1969, p. 75, col. 3 (FCC Commissioner Johnson says he never directly solicited challenges against existing licensees but tried to promote public awareness of broadcasters responsibility and means of challenging them, testimony at Senate subcommittee and House of Representatives committee; is accused of 'drumming up business' against broadcasters by Representative Van Deerlin, of 'stirring up trouble' by Senator Pastore; Chairman Hyde and Commissioners Wadsworth and Lee, in earlier testimony, opposed encouraging applicants; Commissioner Cox backed Johnson).

"2 RKO-General Radio Stations Get Tentative License Renewals," New York Times, Mar. 15, 1969, p. 67, col. 3 (FCC agrees to renew licenses of KHJ and KFRC, both owned by RKO-General, conditional on outcome of Federal antitrust suit (suit against General Tire and three subsidiaries, including RKO-Gen); Commissioner Johnson dissent says FCC should have delayed action pending outcome of suit).

Lydon, Christopher. "FCC Renews Westinghouse Radio-TV Licenses," New York Times, Mar. 26, 1969, p. 35, col. 1,2 (FCC renews licenses of Westinghouse Broadcasting stations KFWB-AM (Los Angeles) and KPIX-TV (San Francisco) but rules it would reconsider if Westinghouse effects proposed merger with MCA Inc.; Commissioner Johnson opposes both renewals; charges FCC ignores charges that KPIX did not give equal time to anti-smoking messages; details. Commissioner Johnson disagrees with FCC renewal of license of TV station KPIX, San Francisco, which has run only one anti-smoking message for every nine cigarette ads in prime time).

Lydon, Christopher. "Antismoking Ads Spur FCC Action," New York Times, Mar. 27, 1969, p. 50, col. 1 (FCC rules WNBC-TV and WNEW-TV, two major New York City stations, must run more antismoking messages during prime time; holds strict parity of ads for and against smoking cannot be required; Commissioner Johnson charges violations of 'fairness doctrine' are flagrant, demands more forceful approach: Banzhaf filed complaints against stations).

Gould, Jack. "Broadcasters Court Congress's Aid as Parlay Ends," New York Times, Mar. 27, 1969, p. 95, col. 1 (J. Gould review of National Broadcasters Association convention notes campaign to have Congress curb recent FCC activities; attacks on Commissioner Johnson noted).

"TV-Industry View on Speech Scored," New York Times, Apr. 9, 1969, p. 47, col. 1 (FCC Commissioner Johnson scores broadcast industry and trade public Broadcasting for 'ignominious silence' in defense of free speech, comment on Smothers Brothers and on recent controversy over WBAI-FM programming; blames networks, not FCC, for censorship. FCC Commissioner Johnson,

in belated concurring statement in FCC's recent decision to dismiss UFT complaint against WBAI, criticizes Broadcasting magazine editorial scoring controversial Lester program).

"Bank Law Backed by F.C.C. Witness," New York Times, April 22, 1969, p. 67, col. 7 (FCC Commissioner Johnson backs strong bill to curb one-bank holding companies, House Representative committee holding censorship of news media by private corporations would intensify if banks acquired news media; Ralph Nader holds Federal agencies failed to give Congress facts it needed to draft effective bill; charges three agencies have long record of working closely with banking industry reports).

"F.C.C. Criticizes 'Pot' Party on TV," New York Times, May 17, 1969, p. 67, col. 4 (FCC majority opinion rules station WBBM-TV was guilty of having induced a crime when it staged marijuana party for purposes of a documentary at Northwestern University in November 1967; absolves station and CBS of major responsibility, blames reporter who produced program; says renewal of station's license has not been jeopardized; Commissioner Johnson to issue dissenting opinion).

Lydon, Christopher. "Channel 11 License Fight Hits a Procedural Snag," New York Times, May 23, 1969, p. 16, col. 5 (Forum Communications files formal application for WPIX; FCC rejects company bid to delay consideration of renewal until June 1 deadline; Commissioner Johnson denounces FCC move, charges FCC acts deliberately to protect WPIX as 'favored' licensee; FCC staff unit renews NY News license for WPIX without knowledge of FCC Commissioners or Forum Communications; staff bureau chief G. S. Smith says he has authority to grant renewal at any time within last 30 days before license expiration unless challenge is filed; says he knew of Forum plan but felt free to make renewal after FCC refused delay; dispute seen certain; FCC seen bitterly divided on issue).

Lydon, Christopher. "2 On FCC Grade TV Stations Here," New York Times, June 1, 1969, p. 35, col. 1 (FCC Commissioners Johnson and Cox issue unusual 'report card' assessing performance of 24 New York State stations whose licenses expire June 1; say they would not renew license of six (WABC, WNBF, WBJA, WHEW, WHEC, WKBW); rate seven New York met area stations, praising WCBS and scoring WABC; acknowledge they are unable to persuade FCC majority to accept their standards; FCC will challenge none of 24 licenses; report details).

"Johnson of FCC Says Agency Must Grapple With WPIX Issues," New York Times, June 21, 1969, p. 55, col. 3 (FCC 'notes' bureau's action on WPIX, in effect approving it; Commissioner Johnson, in concurring statement, says FCC should face up to issue of Forum Communications application; says real issue is whether bureau's renewal despite Forum application is valid; says staff should have probed charges made in Variety).

Gould, Jack. "TV Parley Weighs Scope of Public Broadcasting," New York Times, June 27, 1969, p. 75, col. 1 (Conference on future of noncommercial TV opens at Johnson Foundation retreat, Racine, Wisconsin, under sponsorship of C. F. Kettering Foundation; J. W. Macy Jr. and Professor Frankel chairman; speeches by them, Commissioner Johnson and R. J. Blakley detailed).

Gould, Jack. "Only the Full Truth Will Do," New York Times, June 6, 1969, sec. 2, p. 19, col. 1 (J. Gould urges FCC hold open hearings).

Lydon, Christopher. "Pacifica Chain Is Challenged On Whether It's Educational," New York Times, Sept. 4, 1969, p. 95, col. 3 (FCC sets comparative hearing on Pacifica Foundation application for FM radio channel in Washington DC, also sought by National Educational Foundation, new name for Christ Christian Foundation, which has been twice rejected in competing applications against Pacifica; hearings will formally study Pacifica's previously unquestioned educational status; Commissioners Johnson and Cox dissent, say application should have been granted after second rejection of competitor; disputes concerning Pacifica reviewed).

Gould, Jack. "TV: Challenge to FCC," New York Times, Oct. 1, 1969, p. 94, col. 1 (J. Gould reports state broadcasting associations in Florida, Georgia, South Carolina, and North Carolina have demanded Commissioner Johnson's ouster because of his support on recent TV interview for free air time for political candidates, his questioning of 'monopolistic cross-fertilization' of media and of whether disadvantaged are offered adequate access to challenges to existing licensees; comments on questions challenge raises. J. Gould reports Florida, Georgia, South Carolina and North Carolina units of National Broadcasters Association seek to impeach FCC Commissioner Johnson; controversy over his stand on various industrial issues linked. Commissioner Johnson's support on recent TV interview of free air time for candidates is factor in demand by a four Southeast state broadcasting associations for his ouster from FCC).

Gould, Jack. "TV Station Drops Bid to Oust Johnson," New York Times, Oct. 3, 1969, p. 90, col. 4 (Gould reports WSB-TV (Atlanta) manager D. E. Heald dissociates his station from move; sees other broadcasters also disapproving of tactic; says Johnson has received over 700 letters virtually all of them favorable, following his TV interview; notes H. Belafonte support of Johnson).

Lydon Christopher. "Station Admitting Fraud Gets Renewal," New York Times, Oct. 4, 1969, p. 70, col. 2 (FCC, 4-3, extends for six months license of WIFE-AM-FM (Indianapolis), which admitted fraudulent billing and fake ad contest during period when it was on probation for earlier infractions; admits station meets public interest standard 'minimally' but says evidence does not warrant disqualification; Commissioners Johnson, Cox and Bartley, in strong dissent, call move shocking).

"Broadcasters Unit Urges the Removal of FCC Director," New York Times, Oct. 4, 1969, p. 71, col. 4 ( Eight directors of association's Colorado unit, representing small-town radio stations, put association on record as asking Nixon to remove Johnson, letter to him; letter angers and embarrasses some Denver broadcasters in absence of full poll of 60-member organization. Colorado Broadcasters Association directs most of them link their action to demand by Southeast group).

Ferretti, Fred. "Channel 11 Study Ordered by FCC," New York Times, Oct. 25, 1969, p. 67, col. 4 (FCC, in unanimous move, formally orders hearings into WPIX license bids by New York News and Forum Communications; says it will weight charges of news distortion and Forum's financial qualifications; WPIX president Thrower confident of renewal; Commissioners Bartley and Johnson concur with ruling but urge issue of undue concentration of media by WPIX Inc. be considered).

Shanahan, Eileen. "Phone Rates Cut in Distance Calls," New York Times, Nov. 6, 1969, p. 1, col. 1 (AT&T plans $150-million rate decrease for certain long-distance calls; FCC says company's profits will still exceed 7.5% maximum set by FCC in 1967 but finds rate of return 'not unreasonable'; Commissioner Johnson denounces Committee decision; FCC says it will maintain surveillance of AT&T's earnings; co spokesman says rate cut alone will not bring interstate profits below 8%).

Ferretti, Fred. "Johnson of FCC Chides Network," New York Times, Nov. 7, 1969, p. 95, col. 4 (Commissioner Johnson honored at National Citizens Commission for Broadcasting; committee chairman Hoving, A. J. Goldberg attend. Commissioner Johnson, scoring power of network heads, cites as example fact that Burch and Wells were cleared with broadcast industry by White House before their appointments, speech. Commissioner Johnson makes wide-ranging attack on TV, National Citizens Committee for Broadcasting luncheon honor him; queries TV news coverage of various TV issues; charges TV undoes what children learn in school; charges handful of network executives effectively holds power over Congress and President; cites fact that White House cleared Burch-Wells appointments with broadcasting industry beforehand; does not criticize Burch or Wells; urges Citizens Committee act by means of legal actions, proposed legislation and appeals to Federal agencies; details).

Lydon, Christopher. "Burch Supports Agnew, Shift in FCC Role Seen," New York Times, Nov. 15, 1969, p. 1, col. 2 (Chairman Burch calls Agnew speech 'thoughtful, provocative' and deserving of 'careful consideration' by public and industry, interview; sees call for industry to re-examine itself; sees no hint of intimidation in speech or his own request for transcripts; says Agnew did not call for censorship; defends his method of contacting networks directly; says he has no plans for further investigation; Agnew speech and Burch endorsement seen significant departures from traditional relations between Government and news broadcasters; Burch, who had been deemed pro-business conservative, is now being reassessed as aggressive anti-establishment force, embracing partly policy of liberal Commissioners Johnson and Cox; Johnson comments on Agnew speech; speech scored by Senator Young, Representatives Jacobs and O'Hara (Democrats), lauded by Senate Republican leader Scott. Burch's endorsement of Vice President Agnew's attack on TV news coverage seen foreshadowing basic and unexpected change in FCC's general position).

"The Vice President on TV," New York Times, Nov. 15, 1969, p. 36, col. 1 (Editorial says Burch's 'extraordinary' direct phone calls to networks is form of intimidation).

Naughton, James M. "White House Conciliatory on Protests and the Press," New York Times, Nov. 18, 1969, p. 1, col. 6 (Ziegler says Administration has 'absolutely no desire' to censor news; defends Kleig and Agnew but says neither urges censorship or Government intervention; says both want media only to examine selves; denies Time report Nixon ordered speech but confirms that Buchanan may have contributed some ideas to speech; silent on Nixon's own view on speech; Commissioner Johnson lauds Agnew for bringing issues and tactics of TV coverage into open bur scores Agnew for frightening TV executives and newsmen into what may be 'serious and permanent harm to individual journalism and free speech'; speech Iowa University; sees Government threat in light of Burch's demand for network transcripts; Senate Republican whip R. P. Griffin charges TV news distorts Washington scene).

Johnson, Nicholas. "Is It What We Don't See That Hurts Us Most?," New York Times, Nov. 30, 1969, sec. 2, p. 17, col. 3 (Article by Commissioner Johnson, adapted from speech to National Citizens Committee for Broadcasting, on TV industry leadership failure to assume responsibility, on TV potential for psychological harm, on industry opposition to public interest; quotes comments

of well-known persons; gives suggestions for programs).

Lydon, Christopher. "FCC Divides in Debate Over Radio-TV Licenses," New York Times, Dec. 2, 1969, p. 37, col. 7 (Three Republican members of FCC hold that financial stability of broadcasting is seriously threatened by license challenges and must be secured, four Democratic members hold that public's right to compete for licenses every three years is valuable 'spur' to superior performance and must be preserved, individual statements prepared for Senate subcommittee hearings on Pastore bill; Senator Gurney protests FCC renewal of pacifica Foundation radio station KPFK license last October, citing reading of 'filth' specifically a poem entitled Jehovah's Child, over station; Commissioner Cox justifies reading of poem, says it does not merit legal definition of obscene; says station told listeners prior to reading that many would find it offensive; holds that enforcement of FCC standards against 'obscene, indecent and profane' material is limited by court's definition of such terms; disputed by Pastore and Chairman Burch, who reports he and Justice Department attempt through criminal case to establish new standard of broadcasting decency, narrowing Supreme Court traditional definition of obscenity; backs Pastore bill as preferable to 'present uncertain conditions; other testimony).


Lydon, Christopher. "F.C.C. Reassures Broadcasters on Challenges to Their Licenses," New York Times, Jan. 16, 1970, p. 1, col. 2 (FCC, 61, issues policy statement saying it will permit community groups to challenge radioTV broadcasters licenses at regular threeyear renewal proceedings but will dismiss challenges, without reference to other issues, if broadcaster shows programming serves public interest 'substantially', which it defines as 'solidly' or 'strongly'; says challenger will not win case on evidence that otherwise satisfactory broadcaster holds local media monopoly through joint ownership of newspaper and broadcast facilities; reaffirms its concern with such joint ownership but says it will handle issue as general rule, not in individual cases; new policy seen reassuring broadcasters who fear FCC intends to restructure industry through wholesale denial of license renewals; gives broadcasters less protection than pending Senator Pastore bill that would bar challenges altogether; Chairman Burch, principal author of policy, says Pastore bill is no longer needed; policy says broadcaster cannot claim credit for improvements made after challenge is filed; FCC says policy is clarification of past decisions rather than wholly new policy; Commissioner Johnson, in dissent, charges policy deprives Americans of substantial rights; claims mediocre broadcasters will be protected from possibly superior competition; urges joint ownership issue be weighed in renewal hearings; National Broadcasters Association president Wasilewski hails policy but sees Pastore bill still needed; Pastore aide agrees with Burch, predicts campaign to enact it will end; Forum Communications, which is challenging WPIX license, defends new policy; says no station, including, WPIX should lose license if it substantially meets community needs).

"Aide of F.C.C. Says News Media Have Right to Refuse Subpoenas," New York Times, Feb. 13, 1970, p. 18, col. 2 (FCC Commissioner Johnson says media have right to refuse subpoenas; attacks Nixon Administration for demanding data and media management for acquiescence; holds freedom and integrity of media are in jeopardy, fears news sources will dry up because informants will not risk exposure; says first Amendment's guarantees include right of press to speak as well as right of people to hear, criticizes Time Incorporated for not protecting confidentiality of data on Panthers and questions whether Ling's statements will get as little protection).

Ferretti, Fred. "TV Producers Assail Dropping of Show Examining U.S. Policy," New York Times, Feb. 19, 1970, p. 57, col. 2 (Total of six stations canceled; Association of Public TV Producers scores move as censorship, denying public right to judge for itself; urges FCC probe; assistant chairman A. Perlmutter claims Commissioner Johnson support; NET president J. Day scores cancellations).

Gould, Jack. "F.C.C. Aide Scored for Double Standard on News," New York Times, Feb. 23, 1970, p. 53, col. 4 (CBS executive R. W. Jencks, charging Commissioner Johnson did not defend CBS against encroachment when Government sought outtakes on news coverage of '68 civil rights march in Marks, Miss, and when FCC investigated CBS charges Johnson told media to resist Government subpoenas of unedited material and condoned FCC's investigation of news program documentary on hunger in America, says Johnson did not oppose FCC encroachments on CBS during period when CBS license renewal was held up several months because of probes of two news stories, says Johnson failed to defend station in FCC proceedings dealing with broadcast of 'pot party' in Chicago in '67 ).

Gent, George. "F.C.C. Aide Denies Double Standard, New York Times, "Mar. 3, 1970, p. 83, col. 1 (FCC Commissioner Johnson denies charges by CBS Broadcast Group president R. W. Jencks that he supports double standard in regard to Government intervention in dissemination of news, says Jencks had 'exercised his right to be wrong'; charges TV fails to keep public informed about important issues).

Leonard, John. "Books of the Times," New York Times, Mar. 5, 1970, p. 37 (Johnson, Nicholas (Commissioner) How to Talk Back to Your Television Set).

Gent, George. "F.C.C.'s Johnson Replies to Charges by Jencks," New York Times, Mar. 20, 1970, p. 95, col. 1 (FCC Commissioner Johnson denies charges by CBS Broadcast Group president R. W. Jencks that he maintained double standard on Government intervention in news broadcasting; says he defended press freedom when FCC sought unused portions of tapes and films from CBS documentary Hunger in America and coverage of '68 freedom march in Marks, Mississippi, and when agency demanded names of participants in filmed 'pot party'; Jencks says he will stand on original charges, says outcome of hunger documentary investigation reaffirmed FCC's right to investigate truthfulness of broadcasting; charges Johnson, in 'pot party' case, failed to deal with vital question of whether reporter can be forced to disclose his sources).

Ferretti, Fred. "F.C.C. Says Stations May Edit Impromptu Remarks," New York Times, Mar. 31, 1970, p. 83, col. 1 (Chairman Burch discloses FCC rules that TV network may, at its discretion, delete or edit extemporaneous remarks made on its programs, letter to Representative Ottinger request for FCC position on censorship by ABC of Collins remarks on Cavett Show; committee says when such remarks refer to current litigation, network can adopt its own policy and make 'good faith applications of that policy'; Burch says Commissioners Cox and Johnson dissented; details on communications among parties involved in ruling).

Ferritti, Fred. "Kind Words for Agnew Surprise NAB," New York Times, April 7, 1970, p. 90, col. 4 (Commissioner Johnson makes surprise visit to National Broadcasters Association convention and in Chicago hotel anteroom scores various aspects of industry; was main speaker at rump broadcasting convention held by Chicago Journalism Review).

"Special Wire Rate for Press Ended," New York Times, April 29, 1970, p. 81, col. 1 (FCC ends special press rates on telegraph and telephotograph lines leased by news organizations, holds action will not impair dissemination of news; notes UPI and AP have developed own communications systems and effect of rate increase would be minimal; says supplemental news services are operated by larger corporations which can afford added cost; Commissioner Johnson dissents, will issue statement, New York Times association editor C. Daniel says abolition of preferential press rates will impede flow of information by increasing cost of transmission, holds small news agencies may be forced out of business and competition reduced; notes new rates will impose burden on Times).

Lyden, Christopher. "F.C.C. Puts Limit on Networks TV," New York Times, May 8, 1970, p. 1, col. 1 (FCC, concerned about increasing domination of local TV by networks, rules stations in 50 top markets must fill at least one of their four nightly primetime hours with independently produced material; stations will not be allowed to use network reruns or previously broadcast movies in hour; FCC says rule is designed to promote 'competitive development of alternative sources of TV programs'; Burch dissents from order; indicates he hopes to modify or cancel it; Commissioner Wells also dissents; Burch predicts substitute programming will be 'more of the same'; Commissioners Cox and Johnson are prime movers behind rule; Burch notes protests; CBS and NBC score rule; ABC says it can live with rule; National Broadcasters Association scores rule).

Kitman, Marvin. "How to Talk Back to Your Television Set," New York Times, June 21, 1970, sec. 7, p. 6 (Commissioner Johnson book How to Talk Back to Your Television Set reviewed).

Lydon, Christopher. "F.C.C. Lets Alabama TV Set Up Drop BlackOriented Programs," New York Times, June 30, 1970, p. 83, col. 3 (FCC, 43 rules Alabama's educational TV system is free to drop blackoriented programming of NET as matter of 'taste or judgment'; Alabama University faculty senate and other Alabama citizens had complained about deletion of some programs, Alabama Educational TV Committee has confirmed it cut network's schedule; details on FCC decision; Commissioner Johnson comments).

Lydon, Christopher. "F.C.C. Considers Change in Rules, New York Times, July 16, 1970, p. 67, col. 1 (FCC staff proposal, published for comment after commissioners reach tie vote on it, suggests specialized communications services will develop best through open competition; position, if adopted by FCC, would amount to formal declaration that such services are not a natural monopoly; successor to Commissioner Cox, whose term has expired, will be in position to block or implement proposal, which is endorsed by Commissioner Nicholas Johnson; under proposal, new communications companies would have to demonstrate technical and economic qualifications and show only that there would be no danger of frequency interference; over 30 companies have filed with FCC to build about 1,700 microwave stations, most following Commission's 1969 decision to let Microwave Communications Inc. build privateline phone and data network).

Lydon, Christopher. "A Public Counsel is Kennedy Goal," New York Times, July 22, 1970, p. 24, col. 1 (Senator Kennedy proposes Congress charter new Public Counsel Corporation to represent people's interests before Federal agencies, testimony, Senate Judiciary Subcommittee on Administrative Practice; Nader and FCC commissioner Johnson suggest a new organization might only compound frustration of consumers; all agree that public committees designed to represent public interest have become some of biggest obstacles to effective citizen participation in Government; Nader calls Nixon Administrative record in consumer field 'woefully inadequate'; says any new Public Counsel Corporation should be kept free of Justice Department, which he charges, has become 'anticonsumer' under Mitchell; says top lawyers in Washington should be required to represent public interest).

Lydon, Christopher. "Station in Fraud Wins a Renewal," New York Times, July 31, 1970, p. 59, col. 4 (FCC renews license of Florida radio station WKKO, which admitted overbilling advertisers by nearly $43,000, 1966-68; says it was lenient in case because while station overbilled some advertisers, it underbilled others, with small net gain; holds station regularly sold ad in excess of its limit of 18 commercial minutes per hour, then trimmed schedule to eliminate some commercials; also notes station's owner, Cocoa One Inc, is in process of selling it to people unconnected with past record; Chairman Burch leads majority, Commissioners Johnson and Lee dissent; case said to be similar to that of WIFE, settled last Oct.; details on FCC decision; Commissioner Johnson's dissent detailed).

Lydon. Christopher. "F.C.C. Backs TV Industry Over Right to Refuse Time," New York Times, Aug. 7, 1970, p. 1, col. 3 (FCC reasserts right of TV industry to decide which spokesmen and which ideas can use its facilities in two rulings on question of access to TV; upholds right of Washington PostNewsweek radio station to reject antiwar ads; rules broadcasters must accept Democratic National Committee's fundraising commercials but says they can refuse to let commercials be used for discussion of policy issues; FCC Chairman Burch, at Pastore subcommittee hearing, restates FCC fairness doctrine and says both rulings rest on it; Commissioner Johnson, lone dissenter, says Constitution's guarantee of free speech backs broad claim of access to TV, which he says is now principal medium of political communication; says FCC and courts must begin to draw guidelines for access to TV and radio; FCC decision on Democratic National Committee complaint expresses official approval of concessions networks have granted in last three weeks; in dismissing right to discuss issues, FCC says Democratic request would undermine broadcasters' control over manner in which public is to be informed; Johnson says FCC should require broadcasters to accept all paid ads, commercial or political, on twoyear trial basis; Westinghouse Broadcasting Company, National Association Broadcasters and Corporation for Public Broadcasting oppose Fulbright proposal, subcommittee hearing).

". . . And Television for Congress," New York Times, Aug. 14, 1970, p. 30, col. 1 (Editorial calls FCC rulings partial and unsatisfactory response to problem of fair access to TV, cases of group seeking to buy antiwar ads and Democratic party commercials; backs Commissioner Johnson view that FCC should let parties and nonprofit organizations buy time to discuss public issues for trial period; also holds Congress should have some systematic access to TV).

Lydon, Christopher. "Johnson of F.C.C. Advocates Right of TV Reply to President," New York Times, Aug. 31, 1970, p. 55, col. 2 (Commissioner Johnson says every time President speaks to nation on TV, networks should give comparable treatment to opposite views, statement clarifying his concurrence with FCC ruling that requires networks to give prime time exposure to critical spokesmen replying to Nixon's five speeches on Indochina war; holds that whenever President speaks, he characterizes as 'controversial issue of public importance'; holds leaders of opposing parties and opposing viewpoints in Congress should be given opportunity to reply; holds such rebuttal is needed to present different views, to represent opposing political parties and to perpetuate system of coequal branches of Government in TV age; split with Burch noted; holds FCC should move toward establishing right of reply; holds such replies to President are all the more important since FCC has denied antiwar groups and Democratic National Committee any right of access to TV; chides Burch for criticizing press accounts of original FCC decision and questions 'extraordinary force and haste' with which Burch insisted ruling would not hurt Nixon; by expressing hope that Burch's clarification was not dictated by White House, Johnson stirs up reports that Burch's attack on press had highlevel encouragement).

"Agnew is Accused of Missing Target," New York Times, Sept. 18, 1970, p. 19 col. 1 (FCC Commissioner Johnson says that instead of attaching youth 'drug culture,' spread by underground newspapers and other media, Vice President Agnew should worry about political contributors whose companies sell drugs, cigarettes and liquor, speech, Washington, D. C.).

"F.C.C. Man Scores Revamping Plans," New York Times, Sept. 18, 1970, p. 19, col. 1 (FCC Commissioner Johnson says Ash council reached wrong conclusion in proposing reorganization, speech, Federal Bar Association, Washington; says what is needed is reorientation toward guarding public interest, not reorganization; says there is nothing wrong with current regulatory process that sound Presidential appointments cannot cure; says council proposals are devoid of any strong sentiments toward plight of consumer; says they might actually be aimed at quietly burying what little hope of vigilance there remains for consumer in regulatory process; urges developing 'participatory democracy' in agencies; to achieve this, he proposes financing for law firms that will take cases in public interest; suggests J. W. Gardner's new organization, Common Cause, seek such financing).

Ferretti, Fred. "News Mislabeled WPIX Chief Says," New York Times, Sept. 23, 1970, p. 94, col. 1 (Thrower concedes he was aware of instances in which station mislabeled news reports in latter part of 1968; admissions come at close of his direct testimony on sixth day on witness stand; he will be crossexamined by Forum Communications lawyers; testimony is devoted to charges by McCarthy and others involving news distortion; committee examiner seeks to show by presentation of WPIX office documents and by questions that station's efforts to locate scripts of alleged mislabeled news broadcasts and to investigate various charges were redoubled only after it became apparent committee was about to look into charges; introduces handwritten notes of station vice president L. Pope detailing nine allegations of news distortion made by McCarthy; notes mention Engels and Commissioner Johnson; details on Thrower testimony).

Weaver, Warren Jr. "Gore Joins Receiving Line for Agnew," New York Times, Sept. 23, 1970, p. 21, col. 2 (Agnew charges Johnson with backing 'kind of radicalliberal philosophy of permissiveness and selfflagellation that has encouraged so many of our youths to turn to marijuana and worse,' speech, Louisville, Kentucky; Johnson, in reply, repeats his criticism).

Johnson, Nicholas. "TV's SoCalled 'New' Season," New York Times, Sept. 28, 1970, p. 41, col. 4 (Commissioner Johnson comments on new season; says many 'new' shows have been seen before; notes programming is influenced by commercial interests; holds FCC role will be minimal, says cable TV industry may begin to deliver more diversity and excellence, says most hopeful aspect is noncommercial broadcasting).

Johnson, Nicholas. "Dear Vice President Agnew," New York Times, Oct. 11, 1970, sec. 2, p. 17, col. 1 (Text of Commissioner Johnson's at United States Information Agency symposium, Washington, replying to Agnew charge of rock music promoting a 'drug culture'; Johnson quotes lyrics from various rock songs he says should help Agnew understand 'what's happening in the country'; scores Agnew for 'going after song writers' and not TV advertisers).

Ferretti, Fred. "Parleys to Assay the Impact of TV," New York Times, Oct. 15, 1970, p. 95, col. 4 (WRCATV, NBC's Washington, D. C. outlet, censors alleged unacceptable language from tape of Commissioner Johnson's appearance before Georgetown University Forum; Johnson stunned; defends language used; was criticizing TV commercials, especially hairspray commercial that he says suggested user would enjoy sexual satisfaction).

Gould, Jack. "TV: Questions in Censoring of F.C.C.'s Johnson," New York Times, Oct. 17, 1970, p. 59, col. 1 (J. Gould discusses controversy over NBC deletion of disputed word from Johnson's speech).

Ferretti, Fred. "Nutritionist Says U.S. Study of TV Ads for Children Ignores Food," New York Times, Oct. 18, 1970, p. 94, col. 4 (Commissioner Johnson charges networks use programs to turn children into consumers, speech, symposium; calls ad aim 'open and brazen'; T. J. Jacobs, executive director of Center for Study of Responsive Law and aide of consumer advocate R. Nader, calls most ad, particularly children's socially useless and positively destructive).

Lydon, Christopher. "F.C.C. Member Decries Management of AT&T," New York Times, Oct. 19, 1970, p. 61, col. 3 (Commissioner Johnson says AT&T stockholders have lost billions of dollars in profit because of management decisions concerning cable TV, speech released in Washington and to be delivered in Chicago).

Bergman, Jules. "Public Service TV," New York Times, Oct. 26, 1970, p. 36, col. 4 (ABC editorial J. Bergman letter on Johnson Sept. 28 comment on fall programs).

Gent, George. "Goodell Program Outpolls 'Lassie' in Some TV Ratings," New York Times, Oct. 27, 1970, p. 36, col. 5 (Goodell program gets higher rating in poll than Lassie show preempted for occasion; FCC Commissioner Johnson, commenting on Goodell apology for upsetting viewers schedule, says need for apology 'sums up' what he calls unfairness of present TV campaigning system; sees 'disgrace' that Goodell was forced to pay for time).

Ferretti, Fred. "Parley Assails Minorities' Rights in TV," New York Times, Oct. 27, 1970, p. 91, col. 2 (First National Conference on Citizens Rights in Broadcasting, sponsored by National Citizens Committee for Broadcasting held; reports of minority groups assail conference and call for action; actor O. Davis and Unity House director W. D. Wright demand committee use its power with networks and local and Federal agencies to ensure rights of minorities in broadcasting; Senator Bayh appears by videotape recording at luncheon; committee chairman T. P. F. Hoving offers microphone to several individuals; Wright, who is national coordinator for Black Efforts for Soul in TV, proposes course of action for committee; also proposes that committee's board be expanded to include blacks and other minorities; feminist L. Komisar pleads for aid in National Organization for Women fight for equal rights for TV women; pleas of other speakers noted; other details on conference; Commissioner Johnson and former Commissioner Cox attend; Cox gets award).

"ATT Accuses F.C.C.'s Johnson," New York Times, Oct. 29, 1970, p. 86, col. 7 (AT&T petitions Johnson to disqualify himself from regulatory proceedings involving Bell System because of 'deepseated bias and prejudice' revealed in his criticism; Johnson says he will weigh petition and seek legal opinion; company spokesmen rebut some of Johnson's charges; Communication Workers of America president J. A. Beirne defends Johnson, says company should have complained to full FCC).

"Agnew and Johnson on Rock," New York Times, Nov. 1, 1970, sec. 2, p. 17, col. 1 (Letters on dispute between Agnew and FCC Commissioner Johnson's over 'rock' music and drug addiction).

"F.C.C. Aide Clashes With TV Executive," New York Times, Nov. 21, 1970, p. 63, col. 4 (NBC vice president H. Schlosser accuses Johnson of downgrading efforts to improve TV by calling its programming garbage; National Academy of TV Arts and Sciences panel discussion; refers to speech made by Johnson in Berkeley, Calif says he never called programming 'garbage'; calls Schlosser's statements preposterous; says many people feel TV does not have a lot to offer them).

Lydon, Christopher. "'Government by TV' Charged by Johnson of F.C.C.," New York Times, Dec. 14, 1970, p. 87, col. 1 (FCC Commissioner Johnson describes Nixon Administration as case study of 'government by television,' speech to convention of political consultants, London; sees threat to construct democracy, marked by force feeding of ideology, suppression of dissent and intimidation of broadcasters; holds networks have become more and more responsive to Government wishes; says situation is not result of any conspiracy but is not entirely accidental; says Nixon uses TV 'more, more consciously, and in a more wideranging way, than any prior President'; holds press has special responsibility to investigate and expose and must develop firm stand against pressures such as subpoenas and calls from Government officials).


Lydon, Christopher. "F.C.C. Plans a Wide AT&T Inquiry," New York Times, Jan. 22, 1971, p. 23, col. 2 (FCC, 60, sets comprehensive probe of AT&T to examine rate rise requests, mounting costs, Equal Opportunity Committee charges of discriminatory hiring practices and AT&T control of Western Electric manufacturing subsidiary; probe will study many issues scheduled but never pursued in 1965 FCC probe; FCC says it may not link discrimination charges to economic issues, as suggested by committee; Commissioner Johnson concurring statement noted).

Lydon, Christopher. "F.C.C. Blocks Negro Challenge of 'Soul' Station Shift," New York Times, Feb. 1, 1971, p. 63, col. 1 (FCC rules it has no business investigating sudden transformation of blackoriented 'soul' station KSOL, San Francisco, into 'middleoftheroad' music outlet; black community groups that challenged change will now take their case to Federal appeals court, with encouragement of Commissioner Johnson, who dissents from FCC ruling; changes involve new call letters (KEST), dismissal of six black announcers and disk jockeys and, according to community complaints, end of black specialty programming; FCC defers judgment on charges of job discrimination because proceedings on complaint were initiated in Federal District Court in San Francisco; Johnson's dissent discussed).

"'Jawboning' Television," New York Times, Mar. 1, 1971, p. 28, col. 1 (Editorial lauds guidelines proposed recently by FCC; notes Chairman Burch and Commissioner Johnson now work together in reminding stations that licensed air belongs to public; urges commissioners to play more assertive role at licenserenewal time).

"F.C.C. Warns Broadcaster on Lyrics Backing Drug Use," New York Times, Mar. 7, 1971, p. 28, col. 3 (FCC warns commercial broadcasters they are responsible for keeping off air any song lyrics 'tending to promote or glorify use of illegal drugs', statement; Commissioner Johnson dissents; says effort attempts to censor song lyrics).

Ferretti, Fred. "Johnson of F.C.C. Scores Notice on Drug Lyrics," New York Times, Mar. 13, 1971, p. 59, col. 2 (Johnson, in radio broadcast, attacks FCC notice as unconstitutional, urges broadcasters test it in courts; comments on lyrics of several rock songs he has broadcast to illustrate problems of censoring a lyric).

"Data Processing Ruled on by F.C.C.," New York Times, Mar. 19, 1971, p. 53, col. 7 (FCC, affirming tentative decision made April 2, 1970, rules that all large communications companies must establish totally separate affiliates if they want to sell dataprocessing services; details of ruling and its provisions and implications; Commissioners House, Lee, Bartley and Johnson voted in favor of regulation; Chairman Burch and Commissioners Lee and Wells contend that to deny common carrier access to its own computer services is 'classic case of regulatory overkill').

Johnson, Nicholas. "Yes, We Can All be Naders," New York Times, Mar. 21, 1971, sec. 2, p. 17, col. 1 (Commissioner Johnson comments on new regard at FCC for consumer; notes some actions FCC has taken and some it has avoided taking, article adapted from speech to Consumer Federation of America).

Johnson, Nicholas. "'Up, Up and Away' Over the Airwaves," New York Times, April 3, 1971, p. 29, col. 3 (Excerpts from Johnson's dissenting opinion on FCC decision concerning broadcasters' responsibility to review song lyrics).

"Record Makers Score F.C.C. on Drug Lyrics," New York Times, April 6, 1971, p. 44, col. 3 (Recording Industrial Association of America condemns as unconstitutional FCC warning; files petition asking FCC to rescind its notice).

"MacDermot's Mass in F Joins 'Hair' at Cathedral," New York Times, May 10, 1971, p. 26, col. 1 (Third anniversary of Broadway opening of show is marked at ceremony at Cathedral Church of St. John the Divine; program includes Mass in F by G. MacDermot, who composed score for show, and songs from show, church authorities invite producers to mark anniversary; commissioner Nicholas Johnson and Dr. H. Cox, during program, laud show; D. Henahan review).

O'Connor, John J. "TVRadio: When the Week is Fairly Typical," New York Times, May 11, p. 79, col. 1 (J. J. O'Connor comments on ceremony; notes it was broadcast over WNEWFM; notes statements made by Johnson and Cox).

"F.C.C. Aide Urges Fight on 'the Bigs'," New York Times, May 24, p. 44, col. 1 (FCC Commissioner Johnson urges nation's youth not to cast its talents with America's top 500 corporations but to help 'right wrongs' of 'big businessbig axis,' speech, Windham College commencement).

"Court Nullifies F.C.C. License Policy," New York Times, June 12, 1971, p. 58, col. 4 (U. S. Appeals Court, Washington, D. C., ruling on Black Efforts for Soul in TV petition, nullifies 17monthold FCC policy not to consider license challenges against radio and TV stations that have 'substantially' met programming needs of their communities; threeman panel rules unanimously; decision eliminates major obstacle to challenges of license renewals by groups that feel their interests are not served by local broadcasters; returns committee and industry to situation of several years ago; appears to represent setback for Burch; details on ruling; Judge J. S. Wright writes for panel; Judge G. E. MacKinnon writes concurring opinion; committee spokesman declines to comment on court action; W. D. Wright, petitioner in case, comments; Commissioner Johnson declines comment).

O'Connor, John J. "Where Mr. Johnson's Head Is At," New York Times, June 13, 1971, sec. 2, p. 19, col. 5 (J. J. O'Connor comments on role and views of Commissioner Johnson; Johnson illustration).

"F.C.C. Begins Study to Extend Rule to Campus Radio Stations," New York Times, June 15, 1971, p. 34, col. 1 (FCC has begun to study campus radio stations with eye to regulation over those that expand their audience coverage beyond campus; Commissioner Johnson dissents from move; Commissioner Houser writes sharp rebuttal; scores Johnson, agency recalls 'carriercurrent radio stations' were originally authorized as training labs for communications students and were meant to be limited to campuses).

Graham, Fred P. "F.C.C. Denies Union Air Time for Ads," New York Times, Aug. 7, 1971, p. 49, col. 1 (FCC, in first test of U. S. Appeals Court ruling on equaltime issue, rejects, 31, Communication Workers of America bid to force NBC and CBS to give it airtime to discuss proposed pact settlement; says that, while court declared flat ban on controversial ad unconstitutional, it allowed FCC and broadcasters to decide which can be accepted or rejected; Commissioner Johnson dissents).

Lydon, Christopher. "License Ruling Divides the F.C.C.," New York Times, Aug. 24, 1971, p. 75, col. 4 (FCC, fourtwo awards disputed TV license in Moline, Ill, to WQAD, which admittedly failed to meet its own program promises and tried to sell its license earlier for quick $4.5million profit; Washington legal specialists read decision as evidence committee's Republican majority will tend to favor incumbent broadcasters against their rivals; committee majority takes note of fact that WQAD never ran any of 12 local live public service programs it originally promised to offer in prime time; acknowledges that owners of WQAD agreed to sell station to Detroit News in 1966 almost immediately after expiration of threeyear operating period in which they were barred from such a sale; says WQAD's performance can be considered 'superior' if evaluated alongside its local competition; Commissioner Wells is author of majority decision; Commissioners Bartley and Johnson dissent sharply).

O'Connor, John. "TV: The Time Griffin Dropped a Heavy Question," New York Times, Sept. 3, 1971, p. 55, col. 1 (J. O'Connor discusses Aug. 12 segment of M. Griffin Show on which he alleges statements by Commissioner Johnson scoring commercials shown on that program were deleted by CBS).

Schmeck, Harold M. Jr. "Drug Ad Inquiry Hears 3 on F.C.C.," New York Times, Sept. 23, 1971, p. 111, col. 4 (FCC chairman Burch says FCC has little power to regulate ad of painrelieving drugs on TV and radio, testimony, Senator (Nelson) subcommittee; FCC member Johnson advocates ban on all broadcast ad of overthecounter painrelieving drugs without FDA clearance).

"Notes on People," New York Times, Oct. 19, 1971, p. 50, col. 4 (Commissioner Johnson tells group of pediatricians in Chicago that they should act to stem commercialism and violence in children's TV programming).

Morris, John D. "F.C.C. Rejects Three Requests to Expand Role in Policing False Advertising," New York Times, Oct. 30, 1971, p. 64, col. 3 (FCC, 51 votes in three decisions to reject requests by George Washington University law student group calling itself TUBE (Termination of Unfair Broadcasting Excesses) for adoption of Federal code for broadcast ad practices and revision of license application forms to require specific descriptions of applicant's procedures for detecting and preventing deceptive ad; also rejects request by Action for Children's TV (ACT) for application of fairness doctrine to allegedly deceptive toy ads; says FTC must continue to deal with problem of deceptive ad; dissenter Commissioner Johnson says majority of FCC members have 'do nothing attitude'; FCC says it will issue new public notice on licensee's obligations and responsibilities to avoid deceptive ad; says FCC and FTC may public ad primer outlining Federal laws and regulations; refuses to create Federal advisory board to help broadcasters identify deceptive ad; says move would duplicate function of National Advisory Review Board; will consider resuming practice of notifying broadcasters of commercials found deceptive by Federal Trade Commission; will examine fairness doctrine and relationship of product ad to it; student organization and D.C. Consumers Association complaints were aimed at inadequate procedures to guard against deceptive ad by CBS and WTOPTV, Washington).

Gould, Jack. "CBS Aide Scores as 'Failure' FCC Rule on Prime Time TV," New York Times, Nov. 19, 1971, p. 91, col. 3 (CBS vice president R. W. Jencks sees FCC primetime rule 'total failure', says it has not resulted in qualitative production, International RadioTV Society, New York City; Commissioner Johnson, in wideranging discussion of broadcasting problems, discusses primetime rule; sees its basic goal economic and legal; says industry feels impact of not having lived up to its potentials and of thinking in mass audience terms; Jencks says public TV can never be as free as commercial TV because former is dependent on Federal funds).

Roberts, Steven V. "A Dissident Party Formed in Dallas," New York Times, Nov. 28, 1971, p. 33, col. 1 (Peoples party nominates Dr. B. Spock as standin candidate for President, J. Hobson for Vice President, convention; new party makes it clear it hopes stronger dissident candidate will emerge after Democratic National Convention; Spock is designated now largely because party must present name of nominee before July in at least 12 states in order to get on ballot; convention, attended by 200 activists representing 29 local parties, marks first rumblings of fourthparty, assuming Wallace runs on thirdparty ballot, will be determined by what happens at Democratic Convention; if Democrats choose conservative, experts believe major figure, such as McCarthy, will lead dissident campaign; other possibilities include Senator Harris and Representative Chisholm; if Democrats choose conservative, Peoples party would probably back insurgent candidate and offer him use of ballot lines; if no other candidate emerges, party will be left with Spock or someone else, and many party leaders feel that would be disastrous; G. Vidal, M. Raskin comment; party organizers tried to interest consumer advocate R. Nader or FCC Commissioner Johnson, but both rejected suggestion).

Johnson, Nicholas. "Regulating UtilitiesAnd Us," New York Times, Dec. 2, 1971, p. 47, col. 2 (FCC Commissioner Nicholas Johnson article on analogy between public utility regulation and President Nixon's economic price controls, citing FCC regulation of Bell Telephone rates as example; suggests that both programs basically raise same questions; discusses characteristics of public utility regulations which may be used in other pricing evaluations by Government; holds if FCC's experience with Bell is at all typical, there may be some very basic questions about wisdom of Nixon's economic program; says FCC's decision on AT&T request for increase in interstate phone rates to achieve overall rate return of 9.5% will have precedential impact on other committees and regulated industries; illustration).

Rosenbaum, David E. "F.C.C. Drops Study of AT&T's Rates," New York Times, Dec. 24, 1971, p. 1, col. 2 (FCC Chairman D. Burch, Commissioners R. E. Lee and C. T. Reid vote to end investigation of AT&T rates for interstate longdistance phone calls and Western Electric prices and profits; hold staff and resources are inadequate; will decide what profit is allowed on its longdistance service solely on what company claims as its cost; Commissioner Johnson says action borders on irresponsible, Commissioner Lee says Nixon Administration should supply additional resources to carry out investigation; FCC bureau chief B. Straussburg says AT&T 'in this particular aspect' is too big to be regulated by Government, Commissioner R. T. Bartley says Congress or special study group should continue investigation).


Lydon, Christopher. "Hearing to Weigh TV Violence Study," New York Times, Jan. 18, 1972, p. 63, col. 2 (U. S. Surgeon General's report on TV violence released; Senator Pastore indicates that he is planning public hearings to clarify report's conclusions; Senator (Pastore) subcommittee staff aide says hearings will be held as soon as 43 supporting papers commissioned by Surgeon General have been circulated among Federal regulatory agencies and broadcast industry; says seven men who were rejected from membership on Surgeon General's committee at suggestion of TV industry will be given opportunity to testify; Surgeon General Steinfeld says study is no whitewash, news briefing; says study shows for first time causal connection between TV violence and children's behavior; notes that his committee had been under instructions to confine itself to scientific evidence and not make policy recommendations; FCC Commissioner Johnson says broadcast industry should not have been consulted as to study committee's membership; NBC says report's conclusion that TV violence has limited effect on minority of children is consistent with its own studies).

Lydon, Christopher. "AT&T Study to Resume as F.C.C. Gets New Funds," New York Times, Jan. 29, 1972, p. 1, col. 6 (FCC to resume investigation of AT&T costs and management and relationship with Western Electric Company; reports Nixon's new budget for coming fiscal year provides additional funds, available in July, for common carrier regulation; acknowledges consumer, New York State regulator and Congress concern over earlier cancellation of inquiry; AT&T chairman Romnes says company will respond to FCC's queries; FCC Commissioner Johnson says committee resources are still 'laughably inadequate' for regulation of AT&T; Senator Harris notes Administration's budget will add only ten fulltime staff members to FCC study group; says he and Representative Ryan will continue to press for supplementary funds).

Lydon, Christopher. "New Ruling on Cable TV Limits Its BigCity Growth," New York Times, Feb. 4, 1972, p. 1, col. 2 (FCC issues rules designed to stimulate growth of cable TV from its rural base into nation's smaller cities; cable companies. gain permission to add two outoftown broadcast signals to local channels; are required to provide open channels for schools and local government, and 'soap box' channel that any citizen can use; requirement that cables have capacity to carry messages in both directions makes them adaptable for instructional and security purposes; broadcast stations in 50 largest TV areas will retain control over program materials, such as movies and reruns, thus maintaining check against cable TV's development in big cities; rules, effective March 31, are clouded by controversy and possible legal action because of special treatment for top 50 markets; Commissioner Johnson charges that as result of 'secret bargaining' among White House officials, leaders of film, cable and broadcast industries and FCC Chairman Burch, cable TV will be blocked in cities where it is needed most; Burch concedes White House compromise, reached in Nov. 1971, had made major change in rules FCC first proposed; says obstacle to agreement had been overtheair broadcasters, cable operators and owners of copyrighted film; Commissioner R. E. Lee comments; rules detailed).

Jensen, Michael C. "More Global Economic Data Urged," New York Times, Feb. 10, 1972, p. 63, col. 4 (White House conference on Industrial World Ahead hears speakers on U. S. economic in international context; Commerce Secretary designate P. G. Peterson suggests U. S. undertake worldwide 'intelligence' effort for market data; R. V. Roosa discusses trade between U. S. and Communist countries; Secretary Stans expresses confidence that domestic economic relations with Latin America; Peterson, Roosa, Campos and J. Frere illustration; White House Conference on Industrial World Ahead ends; Senator Harris, in news conference, calls conference 'festival of selfcongratulation' says it failed to include consumerists such as Ralph Nader or FCC Commissioner Nicholas Johnson).

"F.C.C. Aide Weighs Senate Race in Iowa," New York Times, Feb. 12, 1972, p. 59, col. 3 (FCC Commissioner Johnson is considering seeking Democratic nomination for U. S. Senate in Iowa in 1972; U. S. Representative Culver announces he has decided not to run for Senate).

"...And Cable TV," New York Times, Feb. 14, 1972, p. 28, col. 2 (Editorial holds FCC has bowed to U. S. Telecommunications Policy Office by issuing rules restricting cable TV programming in nation's 50 major cities; supports Commissioner Johnson view calling for public hearing instead of agreement worked out by private interests with White House interference).

Montgomery, Paul L. "F.C.C. Official Here Calls TV 'Enemy of the Wise Consumer'," New York Times, Mar. 5, 1972, p. 58, col. 3 (FCC Commissioner Johnson asserts commercial TV is 'foremost enemy of intelligent consumerism', speech, New York Consumer Assembly; describes TV as 'social disaster area'; says it promotes values directly opposed to assembly's interests' contends TV ducks controversial issues in its programming, promotes unhealthful diets with its ad and is 'number one pusher of drug life' with commercials for tranquilizers; says consumers spend about $4million in increased product costs a year to support commercial TV; urges group to hire publicinterest lawyers to take consumer's case before regulatory agencies and courts).

"Nicholas Johnson to Forgo Race for Iowa Senate Seat," New York Times, Mar. 19, 1972, p. 15, col. 1 (FCC Commissioner Johnson says he will not seek Democratic nomination for U. S. Senate in Iowa in '72 because of lack of funds; holds he is unwilling to 'sell bits and pieces of integrity' to raise money; estimates Senator Miller, Republican could raise up to $1million for reelection bid).

Charlton, Linda. "F.C.C.'s Johnson Accuses TV of Molesting Childrens' Minds," New York Times, Mar. 23, 1972, p. 87, col. 3 (Senator (Pastore) subcommittee hearing concerned with recent report on effects of TV violence on children continues; FCC Commissioner Johnson testifies that TV networks have 'molested minds of nation's children'; makes eight proposals for remedial action, including $500million in annual funding for Public Broadcasting Corporation and requirement that 1/3 of all prime time on three networks be used for unsponsored cultural, entertainment and publicaffairs programming; also proposes that 'two commercial minutes' of every 30 minutes containing violence be used for making information available 'about adverse consequences of violence'; Senator Baker and FCC Chairman Burch score Johnson testimony; Burch calls for 'immediate and decisive' action by broadcasting industry to reduce 'gratuitous and needless violence' and create new and diversified programming; sees National Broadcasters Association as focal point for change; Pastore releases letter from Assistant Treasury Secretary Rossides, who wrote that CBS series O'Hara, U. S. Treasury is being considered for cancellation because CBS is concerned about how subcommittee will view extent of violence on program).

"Dole Urges Resignation of Johnson from F.C.C.," New York Times, April 6, 1972, p. 87, col. 3 (Senator Dole, Republican national chairman, urges on April 5 resignation of FCC Commissioner Johnson; holds his description of TV network executives as 'vicious, evil influence' at recent Senate Commerce Committee hearing shows his lack of objectivity; makes public letter to six Democratic President aspirants asking their support for his request to show that it has no partisan overtones).

Navasky, Victor S. "The Making of the Candidate," New York Times, May 7, 1972, sec. 6, p. 27 (V. S. Navasky article, The Making of the Candidate, on political TV campaign consultants and how they operate; introduction describes mechanics of Humphrey's appearance of Lancaster, PA, TV station for live phoneanswering program, and Muskie's TV appearance when he filed for New Hampshire primary and role of consultants in staging programs; Muskie segment includes excerpts from report on modus operandi prepared by R. Stout for newsmen; fears expressed by FCC Commissioner Johnson over use of consultants and whether they can manipulate voters noted; consultants C. E. Guggenheim, D. Garth, J. Greenfield, F. Papert and others comment on their specialty role and importance of radioTV timebuyer discussed; methods of R. Jones, expert in field, noted; controversy over use of 60second and shorter political spots also discussed; illustration of consultants and of TV spots of Humphrey, Jackson, Muskie and McGovern).

Johnson, Nicholas. "I.T.T. and the San Diego Convention Are Just the Tip of the Iceberg," New York Times, May 21, 1972, sec. 2, p. 21, col. 1 (FCC Commissioner Nicholas Johnson discusses issue of political broadcasts and public's right to be heard on TV and radio, excerpt from recent speech to Women's National Democratic Club, Washington; holds that political activists are 'forced to go into states and hold demonstrations in order to get onto' news programs; says interview shows are not sufficient outlet for free speech because they are not aired in prime time; cites President Nixon's choice of times to give his speeches to nation as evidence; holds that public service ads are not sufficient because they are mostly supplied by Ad Council, 'which is run by very same corporations and ad agencies which do most of advertising and selling and polluting and campaigncontributing'; says free access is only 'giving the people same opportunity to speak as corporations'; sees money as main barrier to free access; holds that political broadcasting is 'national scandal' because it 'forces candidates to appeal to rich individuals and corporations to finance their campaigns, with obvious debts once they come into office'; offers two possible solutions; that FCC give time to political candidates or that Congress appropriate funds to finance general elections; scores Nixon for blocking Federal taxform checkoff plan that would have allowed voter to earmark portion of his tax to party of his choice; lauds Representatives J. B. Anderson and Udall's Voters' Time bill to provide governmentfinanced broadcast time for Presidential candidates in weeks before general election; threatens FCC mandate granting automatic right of unrestricted reply to Presidential announcements if networks do not 'begin to stand up to President').

"Ownership Ruling by F.C.C. is Wrong," New York Times, May 21, 1972, sec. 3, p. 3, col. 4 (Excerpts from FCC Commissioners Johnson and Bartley dissenting opinion on committee May 9 ruling that bank trust companies may own as much as 5% of broadcast stations).

"F.C.C. Sets Open Sky Policy on Satellite Service," New York Times, June 17, 1972, p. 32, col. 2 (FCC votes four to three continue 16 to permit qualified applicants to provide communication satellite service for transmission of TV, telephone, telegraph and computer data signals predicts usable satellite system could be in operation 12 to 18 months from date of authorization; order by Commissioners R. T. Bartley, R. E. Lee, H. R. Lee, with Nicholas Johnson concurring, ends sevenyear study of how U. S. should proceed in domestic communications satellite field; three dissenters repeatedly disagreed on ground that committee order was too restrictive against AT&T and Communications Satellite Corporation; FCC holds AT&T, which is now providing 'essential communications services', must demonstrate that revenue requirements for satellite service will not be 'burden or detriment' to customers for their other services; rejects joint proposal by Comsat and AT&T; AT&T spokesman says a provision that would restrict AT&T from using satellites for its private system would 'deny certain Bell System customers the present and further advantages satellite technology offers'; Comsat spokesman says it will press before FCC fact that it is only entity exclusively devoted to satellite communications).

"Offensive Dialogue on Childrens' TV," New York Times, Oct. 3, 1972, p. 90, col. 5 (Boston educational TV station WGBH representative C. Sarson cites dialogue from ABC children's program Kid Power as example of what makes program offensive, FCC hearing on children's TV programs; ABC official M. Eisner contends quotes are 'totally out of context'; Commissioner Nicholas Johnson criticizes network representatives, local stations and educational broadcasters for 'excessive number' of cartoontype actionadventure shows in their scheduling; CBS programming vice president F. Silverman and Meredith Broadcasting official H. Francis also testify).

"Incentive Urged for Childrens' TV," New York Times, Oct. 4, 1972, p. 95, col. 4 (Action for Children's TV president E. Sarson on Oct. 3 testifies that stations trying to improve children's programming need protection in order to survive, FCC hearing on children's TV programming; says original, creative programs are often expensive to produce, putting station that is attempting to improve its programming at financial disadvantage; Kaiser Broadcasting president R. C. Block suggests longer licensing period as incentive for stations to develop quality programming; committee member Nicholas Johnson lauds incentive approach but does not support licensing suggestion).

Shanahan, Eileen. "F.C.C. to Review PrimeTime Rule," New York Times, Oct. 28, 1972, p. 64, col. 1 (FCC on Oct. 27 announces that it will review its prime time access rule forcing TV stations affiliated with networks to broadcast more nonnetwork programs; says that repeal of rule is possibility it will consider but that majority of committee did not support repeal at this time; says it will study whether specific types of programs, such as those aimed at children or minorities, should be required to be broadcast in some of prime evening hours that formerly were occupied by network broadcasts; rule, in effect since Oct. '71, requires that during four hours of peak viewing time each night generally 7 PM to 11 PM network affiliates must broadcast at least one hour of programs not supplied by network; rule also prohibits broadcast during hour of nonnetwork programming of previously shown network material or feature films that were shown during preceding two years; NBC and CBS have opposed rule from outset; ABC generally supported it; committee says it has decided to review rule because it has become burdened with applications for waivers; says it wants to dispose of issue promptly, so that, networks can plan their 1973-1974 season; asks that networks submit initial comments by Dec. 22 and sets Jan. 22 as deadline for reply comments; Commissioner Nicholas Johnson scores timetable; says committee is reviewing rule before it can detect effects of rule).

Shanahan, Eileen. "Spock Loses Plea for TV Coverage," New York Times, Nov. 7, 1972, p. 23, col. 1 ( FCC, fiveone refuses on Nov. 6 to order three TV networks to give halfhour coverage to President candidacy of Dr. B. Spock, People's party candidate; committee majority says party failed to demonstrate that there is sufficient 'substantiality' to Spock's campaign to make networks' abbreviated coverage of it inadequate under fairness doctrine; Nicholas Johnson, dissenting commissioner, says both CBS and NBC provided no coverage of campaign in its 'crucial' final three weeks; ABC has put four minor party candidates, including Spock, on air in last three weeks; two other campaign; committee majority also says party complaint is technically defective).

"F.C.C. Member Urges Curb on TV Drug Ads," New York Times, Nov. 15, 1972, p. 94, col. 4 (FCC Commissioner Johnson on Nov. 14 terms TV 'principal pusher to junkie nation' and urges grassroots campaign for legislation to regulate TV drug ad, speech before panel of chair leaders holding public hearings on drugs and ad, panel includes National Council of Churches. president, C. Wedel and State Clerk of Presbyterian Chair W. Thompson; is exploring impact of ad on drugtaking patterns of American society; panel was told earlier by Proprietary Association that its surveys indicate that ad has little impact on drug abuse; Johnson says broadcast ad of overthecounter drugs should be banned).

Shanahan, Eileen. "F.C.C. Authorizes $145Million Rise in Phone Charges," New York Times, Nov. 23, 1972, p. 1, col. 8 (FCC on Nov. 22 rules, fiveto two, to permit AT&T to earn at least 8.5% return immediately and as much as 9% in near future; decision will bring immediate $145millionayear increase in longdistance phone rates; Commissioner Nicholas Johnson, one of dissenters, says decision amounts to giving co 'blank check' to earn more at expense of consumer; criticizes majority's decision on grounds that it is acting without ever having decided on reasonableness of profits made by Western Electric, for acting on basis of hearing record that was closed in mid1971, before Administration's controls program was adopted, and for acting without taking into account that total increase in consumer's phone bills could reach $1.3 billion if state regulatory agencies adopt standard of 9% rate of return set by Federal agency; Commissioner H. R. Lee, other dissenter, issues no separate statement; AT&T chairman J. deButts says that he expects rate of return to move all way up to 9% ceiling but does not predict when; recommended rate of return exceeds that which was recommended by D. I Kraushaar, committee official who presided over hearings; Commissioner Lee says he hopes rate increases will be applied mainly to businesshour calls and operatorassisted calls).

Johnson, Nicholas. "TV Ads and Drug Abuse," New York Times, Dec. 10, 1972, sec. 3, p. 15, col. 1 (FCC Commissioner Johnson article contends current U. S. practice of selfmedication through overthecounter drugs is based on massive misinformation, perpetuated through massive TV drug ad; holds that, despite danger that our growing reliance on drugs may pose serious health problems, TV and ad industry remain opposed to enhancement of public interest through FCC control of such ad; Johnson lists several proposals to control drug ad in order to stem tide of national drug reliance, says FCC has refused to confer on matter with FCC Commissioners; contends successful grassroots campaign is only way to persuade Congress to enact legislation in this area; illustration).


Gent, George. "Johnson of FCC Hits Nixon Policy," New York Times, Mar. 10, 1973, p. 62, col. 8 (FCC Commissioner Nicholas Johnson on March 9 predicts TV networks will bend under Nixon Administration pressure to avoid broadcasting controversial programs; cites CBS indefinite postponement of D. Rabe's antiwar play Sticks and Bones; accuses Nixon Administration of seeking control of communication media 'in manner reminiscent of Nazi Germany', speech, Speech Association of the Eastern States 64th annual convention, New York City; notes that public affairs programming was cut back after Nixon's appointment of former Voice of America Director H. W. Loomis to head Public Broadcasting Corporation; says there is talk of public TV becoming domestic Voice of America. Johnson's term expires in 90 days and he says on March 24 that he does not expect to be reappointed by President Nixon, speech at Villanova University).

"Intimidation of the Media Seen by Nicholas Johnson," New York Times Mar. 26, 1973, p. 32, col. 3 (FCC member Nicholas Johnson on March 24 accuses Nixon Administration of trying to intimidate press because 'they want the media to repeat, not report,' drug seminar, Villanova University; holds Administration is greatest threat to U. S. press freedom in this century).

Crewdson, John M. "FCC Will Study 'Obscene' Show on Radio and TV," New York Times, Mar. 28, 1973, p. 1, col. 5 (FCC on March 27 announces that it will investigate broadcasting of allegedly obscene radio and TV programs; announcement follows vote by committee last week to conduct inquiry into possible violation of Federal laws against such programs, including telephone call-in shows dealing with explicit sexual topics, which are popular on many radio stations; Commissioner Nicholas Johnson is only member to vote against investigation, which he calls 'inappropriate' exercise of FCC's regulatory power; inquiry, for which no starting date has been set, will be closed to public unless committee 'determines that public sessions would serve the public interest'; administration law judge, who has not been named, will conduct hearings and will be given power to subpoena records and witnesses; FCC spokesman cites number of public complaints, which have more than tripled since December, and pressure from Congress as chief factors influencing committee's decision to investigate; says hearings will also touch on few instances in which allegedly obscene films were broadcast over commercial and cable TV stations; says Nevada TV station KVVU broadcast pornographic films during late evening hours, but took them off after receiving complaints; says group of Syracuse University students recently showed film Deep Throat over student-run cable TV station; film was recently declared obscene by Manhattan judge and ordered removed from exhibition in New York City theaters; Senators and Representatives during last two months have expressed special concern about radio call-in shows, which enjoy their greatest popularity in California; House Representative Communications subcommittee chairman Representative T. H. Macdonald, noting that he recently called on FCC Chairman Burch to put stop to programs, says he is delighted that Burch acted with such dispatch).

"'Topless Radio' Shows Draw Fire From FCC," New York Times, April 14, 1973, p. 39, col. 2 (FCC, 6-1 votes on April 13 to fine Sonderling Broadcasting Corporation, owner of Illinois radio station WKLD-FM, $2,000 for broadcasting two 'topless radio' shows dealing with sex; dissenting Commissioner Nicholas Johnson calls vote 'arbitrary, unwise and unconstitutional').

"FCC Rules 2 Groups Can Copy Tapes From Obscenity Inquiry," New York Times, June 2, 1973, p. 63, col. 3 (Commissioner Nicholas Johnson walked out of session; said that FCC should not sit as program reviewing committee, imposing its tastes upon broadcasters and public).

Shanahan, Eileen. "Johnson of FCC Evaluates TV Stations," New York Times, July 9, 1973, p. 67, col. 1 (Nicholas Johnson, reformer who is about to be replaced as member of FCC, on July 8 releases study that evaluates programming and employment practices of 144 major TV stations; study, entitled Broadcasting in America, was done under Johnson's direction by members of his staff and his seminar students at Georgetown University Law School; covers stations with network affiliations in each of nation's 50 largest metropolitan areas; ranks stations on basis of computer analysis of various elements in their programming and on their record in employing minorities and women; finds that KPIX (San Francisco) has best over-all programming record and WCCB (Charlotte) worst; reports that three network affiliates in New York City rank among top 1/3 in programming, with WABC 13th, WCBS 26th and WNBC 39th; finds that WTEV (Providence), WNYS (Syracuse) and WCAU (Philadelphia) are among best for employment of minorities and women, while KEY (Salt Lake City), KMSP (Minneapolis) and WKZO (Kalamazoo-Grand Rapids) are among worst; reports that WNBC ranks 9th, WCBS 11th and WABC, 30th in percentage of minorities employed compared with percentage of minority persons in their geographical area; ranks WCBS 13th, WNBC 17th and WABC 65th in connection with percentage of women employed in better-paying professional and technical jobs; finds that stations have better records in employment of minorities than in employment of women, especially in better-paid jobs; contains some detailed recommendations on how to mount various types of protests, including challenges to renewal of licenses; contains lists of publications and organizations that might be helpful to those trying to get local broadcasters to change programming or employment practices; ranks five stations run by Westinghouse Broadcasting Company first, second, fourth, fifth, and 31st in programming for stations in San Francisco, Baltimore, Pittsburgh, Philadelphia and Boston, respectively, calls Westinghouse record 'remarkable' and 'by far the best multiple-owner in the country'; says Taft Broadcasting Company, whose properties are mainly in Ohio, is worst multiple owner; ranks WREC (Memphis), only TV station owned by New York Times, 128th of 144 stations in overall programming; finds that Pittsburgh and Portland have best over-all programming and that Charleston-Huntington, West Virginia, and Kansas City, Missouri worst).

"Johnson of FCC Criticizes Agency an its Decision-Making," New York Times, July 30, 1973, p. 55, col. 3 (Nicholas Johnson, outgoing member of FCC, on July 29 makes public detailed new criticism of committee and way it reaches its decisions; writes critique to demonstrate to courts how little basis FCC has for most of its decisions; says only immediate hope for improving FCC's performance lies in possibility that courts will stop giving weight to committee decisions once they recognize that it does not follow any 'rational and orderly process' in reaching decisions; charges that detailed examination of what actually happens at FCC shows that agency ignores and waives its own rules, rarely conducts its own investigations, almost never listens to consumer public and generally does what broadcasting and communications industries want; Johnson, to document these charges, examines actions taken by FCC at its Dec. 13 weekly meeting; analysis, entitled A Day in the Life: The FCC, is published in July issue of Yale Law Journal; article charges that FCC lets its staff manipulate many of its decisions; says FCC's cable TV bureau is 'cable industry's most vociferous advocate').

Charlton, Linda. "Likely FCC Nominee Stirs Dispute," New York Times, Aug. 28, 1973, p. 71, col. 2, 4 (J. H. Quello, who is believed likely to be Nixon Administrator's choice to fill existing vacancy on FCC, is stirring great deal of controversy; Ralph Nader and outgoing FCC Commissioner Johnson have written protest letters to Senator Pastore, chairman of Senate Commerce Committee subcommittee on communications, which will hold confirmation hearings on whoever is appointed to post; memo, written two years ago by A. E. Jackson, vice president and director of community relations for Capital Cities Communications, of which station WJR, Detroit is subsidiary, and for whom Quello was station manager, describes Quello as insensitive to problems of minorities; Jackson, in statement released Aug. 27, deplores use of 'stolen memorandum' to oppose Quello's nomination and says he disagrees with 'sincere view that to appoint broadcasters to committee is to put the cats in charge of the cream'; says he cannot, however, enthusiastically support Quello for FCC).

Brown, Les. "Johnson Plans to Resign FCC Position Tomorrow," New York Times, Dec. 4, 1973, p. 90, col. 8 (FCC member Nicholas Johnson, who will resign his seat this week, is reported to have received repeated overtures from National Citizens Committee for Broadcasting to become either its chairman, spokesman or consultant; Johnson says he is seriously thinking about joining organization. Johnson will continue to goad broadcast establishment and FCC as private citizen; Senate approval of J. Quello to succeed Johnson is still pending; Johnson describes President Nixon's choice of Quello as "'abysmal and preposterous'. Aide to Federal Communications Commissioner Nicholas Johnson, who plans to resign his set this week, reports that it is 'about 95% certain' that Johnson will run for Congress in 1974 in Iowa's Third District; Johnson had considered running for Senate in 1972 but abandoned idea because it required too much money).

"Johnson Quits FCC Post; To Join Law Firm in Iowa," New York Times, Dec. 6, 1973, p. 58, col. 5 (Nicholas Johnson announces on Dec. 5 that he is stepping down as FCC Commissioner without waiting for Senate to confirm successor, speech, Main Line forum; say one of reasons he is doing so is to remove any possible question as to his motives in opposing J. Quello, who President named to succeed him).

Brown, Les. "Johnson Asks 11 PM TV Shutdown to Save Energy," New York Times, Dec. 15, 1973, p. 63, col. 1 (Nicholas Johnson, who recently resigned as member of FCC, on December 12 calls for shutdown of TV service at 11 PM and ban on ad of large autos and other products that are 'excessively inefficient users of energy,' speech at Colgate University; says TV contributes to energy shortages through programs and commercials that urge waste and through operation of transmitters and receivers; says shutting down TV stations at 11 PM will result in 10% savings of electric power consumed by TV; estimates that average TV station transmitter uses enough energy to supply electric needs of 1,000 homes for one year; notes that average U. S. family spends six or seven hours a day watching TV; says electricity bill for TV sets comes to $1.8-billion a year).

Brown, Les. "Whitehead is Resigning Telecommunications Post," New York Times, Dec. 20, 1973, p. 79, col. 3 (L. Brown analyzes growing influence of President Nixon on FCC; says when Nixon names successor to House Representative Lee, who resigned last week, he will have appointed six of seven members of committee; says that not since Franklin D. Roosevelt's Administration has composition of FCC so borne stamp of a single President and that since appointments are for seven years, Nixon's influence upon American communications policy will extend well beyond his own term of office; notes concern of Senate Communications Subcommittee Chairman J. O. Pastore and various citizens' organizations that FCC may become overly representative of one part of political spectrum; Brown notes Senate Commerce Committee has arranged to hold confirmation hearings on Jan. 23 for Nixon's Second appointment to Democratic seat, J. H. Quello; although ostensibly a Democrat, Quello repeatedly contributed to Nixon's 1972 re-election campaign and was urged on President by Vice President Ford; is expected that because conservative side of FCC has traditionally backed incumbent station operators in most instances of license challenges, that broadcast license renewals will be more easily achieved than they have been in recent years; FCC aide notes that long-pending question of multiple-ownership in media no longer need be considered; advocates of dissolving media monopolies have been Commissioners Nicholas Johnson and H. R. Lee, both of whom have resigned).

Gould, Jack. "Nicholas Johnson's Finale," New York Times, Dec. 22, 1973, p. 24, col. 5 (J. Gould letter charges ex-FCC Commissioner Nicholas Johnson with abusing Federal postal franking system by mailing form letter to friends listing names, addresses and telephone numbers of his literary agent, his lecture agent and his 'coordinators' in Washington, D. C., and Iowa).

Brown, Les. "Johnson in Broadcast Consumer Unit," New York Times, Dec. 28, 1973, p. 58, col. 6 (Johnson, who recently resigned from FCC, and A. H. Kramer, who founded Citizens Communications Center, are named chairman and president, respectively, of National Citizens Committee for Broadcasting, which is reorganizing; both will serve part time; committee was once notable force in helping to hold broadcasters to their public-interest obligations; it lost its influence after internal upheaval late in 1969, when most of original board members resigned; its activities have received little attention since then; under reorganization, which is repeatedly accompanied by pledges of new funding from several foundations, committee is expected to return to forefront of citizens' rights activities involving TV and radio; Kramer says new directors board is being formed; says board will consist of persons 'able to make substantive contributions'; cites as examples two members already named, Reverend E. C. Parker, director of Communications Office of United Church of Christ, and attorney E. K. Moore; history of committee reviewed).


"Newspapers Face Broadcast Fight," New York Times, Jan. 3, 1974, p. 70, col. 4 (Justice Department on January two files petitions with FCC to force newspaper publishers in St. Louis and Des Moines to give up their interests in local broadcast stations; opposes renewal of broadcast licenses held by publishers on ground that it 'would perpetuate high degree of concentration in dissemination of local news and ad'; petitions indicate that department intends to oppose license renewals in other cities where competitive situation is similar; urge committee to deny applications for license renewals from Pulitzer Publishing Company of St. Louis for KSD-TV and KSD-AM, Newhouse Broadcast Corporation for KTVI-TV and Cowles Communications Inc. of Des Moines for KRNT, KRNT-FM and KRNT-TV; breaking up of media monopolies had been under discussion at FCC for years, but it was believed to have evaporated as committee topic when Nicholas Johnson and H. Rex Lee resigned in December).

Madden, Richard L. "Iowa's H.R. Gross to Quit Congress," New York Times, Jan. 18, 1974, p. 15, col. 1 (Iowa Representative H. R. Gross, 74 on Jan. 17 announces retirement, citing age; Nicholas Johnson is interested in seeking seat).

Madden, Richard L. "Johnson Opposes Nominee for F.C.C.," New York Times, Jan. 29, 1974, p. 67, col. 4 (Former FCC member Nicholas Johnson on Jan. 28 urges Senate subcommittee to reject his nominated successor James H. Quello to assure that nation's communications systems and policies 'are not subjected to excessive White House control'; urges subcommittee to scrutinize nominees to FCC because, he says, within next six months, Nixon will be nominating top officials of Office of Telecommunications Policy, some members of Corporation for Public Broadcasting and three more FCC commissioners, thereby giving President virtual domination of nation's communications policies and operating systems).

Lydon, Christopher. "New Democratic Plan Ignored in Iowa," New York Times, April 8, 1974, p. 14, col. 4 (Democratic party in-fighting in state is centered on three-way Democratic primary contest for gubernatorial nomination; victor will be underdog against popular Republican Governor Robert D. Ray; former FCC Commissioner Nicholas Johnson is thought to have edge in Congressional primary over state legislator Steve Rapp; is seeking House Representative seat being vacated by retiring U. S. Representative House Representative Gross).

Brown, Les. "Senate Panel, on Party Ground, Delays FCC Vote on Holcomb," New York Times, April 12, 1974, p. 62, col. 5 (Senate sources say Senate Commerce Committee vote on nomination of Reverend Luther Holcomb for Democratic seat on FCC to replace H. Rex Lee is being held up until after Easter recess, partly because of questions raised concerning his political affiliation; committee votes, 14-2, to recommend confirmation of James H. Quello to FCC for seat previously held by Nicholas Johnson; One Senator is quoted as being concerned that Holcomb may be closet Republican appointed to seat reserved for a Democratic; similar reservations about Quello's appointment to Democratic seat, since he contributed $1,100 to Nixon's '72 campaign, noted; Senate sources say there is possibility that committee will ask Senate Communications Subcommittee to reopen hearings on Holcomb's nomination).

King, Seth S. "Johnson, an ex-F.C.C. Member, Loses House Race by 43 Votes," New York Times, June 6, 1974, p. 31, col. 4 (Commissioner Johnson by 43 votes to win Democratic nomination for Congress in Iowa's Third District; State Representative David Stanley easily wins Republican nomination in race for U. S. Senate seat being vacated by Senator Harold E. Hughes; James Schaben easily defeats William Gannon and Clark Rasmussen for Democratic gubernatorial nomination).

"Iowa House Race Unsettled as Judge backs Indians' Suit," New York Times, June 15, 1974, p. 17, col. 5 (U. S. District Judge Edward McManus rules that group of American Indians were denied right to vote in June 4 primary, decision that leaves undecided who won Third District Democratic nomination for U. S. Representative; in that election, State Representative Stephen Rapp narrowly defeated former FCC Commissioner Nicholas Johnson by 62 votes for nomination; McManus upholds Sac and Fox Tribal Council contention that Indians' rights were violated when county officials failed to put polling schoolhouse in tribe's settlement near Tama; Congressional seat is now held by Representative H. R. Gross, Republican; Johnson issues statement saying he will not demand recount but that he supports Indian court action).

"Indians' Suit Spurs New vote in Part of an Iowa House District," New York Times, June 25, 1974, p. 24, col. 2 (Federal District Judge Edward J. McManus, responding to complaint by Sac and Fox Indian Tribal Council, orders that 4 of 472 precincts in Iowa's Third Congressional District conduct new election on July 2; new balloting could reverse results of primary election for Democratic seat in House Representative; in June 4 primary, Stephen Rapp, 25-year-old lawyer, won by 62 votes over Nicholas Johnson, former FCC member, council charged that Indians living in Mesquakie settlement were deprived of voting because settlement lacked polling place).

"Ex-F.C.C. Aide Loses Iowa Contest Again," New York Times, July 3, 1974, p. 12, col. 5 (Iowa Representative Stephen Rapp scores apparent victory over Nicholas Johnson in Democratic race for Third Congressional District seat of U. S. Representative H. R. Gross, Republican who is retiring; results of court-ordered election give Rapp 129-vote margin).

Brown, Les. "Johnson to Push Broadcast Work," New York Times, Aug. 2, 1974, p. 55, col. 4 (Former FCC Commissioner Nicholas Johnson says broadcast license renewal legislature before Congress is 'bill to protect media monopolists'; is also completing book for McGraw-Hill on his experiences with committee).

"Headliners-Once a Gadfly," New York Times, Aug. 4, 1974 , sec. 4, p. 7, col. 1 (Comment on former FCC Commissioner Nicholas Johnson's new post with the National Citizens Committee for Broadcasting).

Johnson, Nicholas. "Our Giant Price-Fixing," New York Times, Sept. 14, 1974, p. 28, col. 3 (Nicholas Johnson letter suggests vigorous enforcement of antitrust laws to help combat inflation; says outdated Senate report once placed cost of price fixing and monopoly at $100-billion a year and cost may be twice that now; says academic studies indicate that price rises in ologopolistic industries far exceed those in competitive industries; suggests Justice Department dismantle ologopolistic corporations and attack price fixing and other inflationary anticompetitive practices; sketch).

Johnson, Nicholas. "What Automobiles Do to US," New York Times, Nov. 19, 1974, p. 42, col. 3 (Citizens Broadcasting Committee chairman Nicholas Johnson letter says auto is not only core of U.S. energy problems, as stated in Nov. 4 editorial, but chief cause of air pollution, major cause of accidental death, and prime factor in destruction of environment. Urges ban on auto ads, at very least, and massive media campaign to encourage more walking and bicycling. Notes that late United Auto Workers president Walter Reuther frequently urged auto industry to improve engine efficiency).

"Nicholas Johnson Gets Post," New York Times, Nov. 26, 1974, p. 79, col. 4 (Nicholas Johnson, advocate of broadcast reforms during his seven years on FCC, will become publisher of new biweekly magazine devoted to citizen's movement for reform in broadcasting and cable TV; magazine will be published by National Citizens Committee for Broadcasting).


Brown, Les. "House Gets Bill Revamping FCC," New York Times, June 19, 1975, p. 71, col. 4 (Representative T. H. Macdonald introduces bill containing 15 specific recommendations for reorganization of FCC; provisions are generally aimed at lifting some of secrecy under which FCC operates, at eliminating some of bureaucratic procedures and at facilitating Congressional supervision of FCC; Macdonald says legislative is also intended to reverse what he calls 'drift to the executive branch'; bill would cut number of commissioners to five and would increase their terms to ten years; other provisions noted; bill is known as FCC Reorganization and Reform Act).

Johnson, Nicholas. "'Fairness' Alternatives," New York Times, Aug. 10, 1975, sec. 2, p. 23, col. 8 (Letter by Nicholas Johnson, National Citizens Communications Lobby, questions alternatives to fairness doctrine, which broadcasters appear to be in favor of repealing).

Brown, Les. "Dissent Held Rare in FCC Voting," New York Times, Aug. 12, 1975, p. 59, col. 4 (National Citizens Committee for Broadcasting analysis of voting records of seven FCC members finds commissioners voted in agreement with committee chairman Richard E. Wiley an average of 97.6% of the time; sources attribute lack of dissent in voting to chairman's technique of settling disputes over issues with compromises often outside the meeting room before the vote; percentages for Commissioners Glen O. Robinson, Abbott Washburn, Benjamin Hooks, Robert E. Lee, Charlotte Reid and Chairman Wiley noted; Broadcasting Committee head Nicholas Johnson comments).


Brown, Les. "Public Affairs TV is Called a 'Duty'," New York Times, Jan. 13, 1976, p. 67, col. 4 (National Citizens Committee for Broadcasting has obtained support of 28 consumer and citizens groups for campaign to require TV stations and networks to devote at least one hour a week of prime time to public affairs programming; committee chairman Nicholas Johnson says time has come for citizens to create their own public interest standard because Congress and FCC have failed to act; some groups endorsing committee's proposal listed).

Brown, Les. "Hitting the Tube," New York Times, April 4, 1976, sec. 2, p. 25, col. 7 (Nicholas Johnson, former FCC Commissioner who currently heads National Citizens Committee for Broadcasting, comments on symptoms of 'TV addiction').

Brown, Les. "Study Assails Sponsors on TV Violence," New York Times, July 30, 1976, sec. 4, p. 9, col. 4 (National Citizens Committee for Broadcasting study finds that Tegrin shampoo, Burger King chain, Clorox bleach, Colgate-Palmolive products and Gillette hair products are sponsors whose commercials most frequently appeared in violent shows during last six weeks; says Aramid Radial Tires, IBM, Thomas J. Lipton Inc. and No-Nonsense panty hose made by Kayser-Roth Hosiery Company are national advertisers that did not sponsor programs containing violence; committee chairman Nicholas Johnson says study was made to hold advertisers accountable for supporting programs that do injury to people, news conference; Gillette North American president Bill Salatich disputes study's findings; study was conducted by BI Associates on $10,000 grant from Laras Foundation; other sponsors of programs containing violence listed).

"Survey Says That NBC-TV is Leader of All Networks in Violence in Prime Time," New York Times, Dec. 17, 1976, sec. 1, p. 17, col. 1 (National Citizens Committee for Broadcasting says survey found that NBC led networks in prime-time violence in fall season and that Chevrolet sponsored greatest number of violent programs; survey found Quest to be most violent program, CBS to be least violent network and Peter Paul candy to be advertiser sponsoring fewest number of violent programs; survey was financed by AMA; committee chairman Nicholas Johnson and AMA president Richard E. Palmer comment).


Brown, Les. "Wiley Decries 2 Fairness Rules," New York Times, Mar. 30, 1977, sec. 3, p. 26, col. 4 (FCC chairman Richard E. Wiley, CBS commentator Eric Sevareid and ex FCC member Lee Loevinger denounce equal-time law for political Broadcasts ad fairness doctrine, National Association at Broadcasters annual conviction; FCC Menders Abbott Washburn and ex-members, Nicholas Johnson and Kenneth Cox urge retention of fairness doctrine).

Carmody, Deirdre. "Challenging Media Monopolies," New York Times, July 31, sec. 5, p. 21 (Article on Citizens Communications Center and its suit on behalf of National Citizens committee for Broadcasting to force newspaper publishers to divest themselves of TV or radio stations in area served by their newspaper; founder Albert Kramer, former executive director Frank Lloyd, center attorney Susan Dillon, former FCC Chairman Nicholas Johnson and Joe M. Dealey, chairman of ANPA committee set up to study cross-ownership question, comment; center and Kramer illustration).

Brown, Les. "'Watchdog Unit' of Corporation for Public Broadcasting Dissolved," New York Times, Sept. 10, 1977, p. 50, col. 1 (Nancy McMahon, head of PBC's Advisory Council of National Organizations, says council disbanded because it was not serving effectively; National Citizens Committee for Broadcasting president. Nicholas Johnson, AFL-CIO spokesman Al Zack testify).


Bird, David. "Violence on TV is Found Declining," New York Times, Feb. 2, 1978, sec. 3, p. 19, col. 1 (National citizens Committee for Broadcasting study indicates that violence on TV decreased 9% this season; says declines of 26% at ABC and 11% at NBC were partly offset by 14% increase at CBS; cites Whitehall Laboratories as company that sponsored most violent programs; says Logan's Run, The Godfather and Young Daniel Boone were programs that contained most violence; committee chairman Nicholas Johnson and spokesman Ted Carpenter comment).

Holsendolph, Ernest. "Plan Seeks to Lessen FCC Role," New York Times, June 8, 1978, sec. 4, p. 1, col. 6 (House Representative subcommittee on communications introduces bill to make telecommunications free market rather than regulated industry by reducing powers of FCC; bill would permit AT&T to expand interests in communications industry; United Church of Christ spokesman Reverend Dr. Everett C. Parker and National Citizens Committee for Broadcasting chairman Nicholas Johnson oppose bill; National Broadcasters Association president Vincent T. Wasilewski supports it; Representatives Lionel van Deerlin and Lou Frey Jr., AT&T vice chairman William M. Ellinghaus and Industry Telephone Association president J. Philip Bigley comment; major provisions of bill noted).

"Congress Offers Plan to Loosen Regulatory Reins on TV," New York Times, June 11, 1978, sec. 3, p. 15, col. 1 (House Representative communications subcommittee proposals to end fairness and equal-time doctrines reviewed; drawing).

"Broadcast License Bill Assailed," New York Times, July 20, 1978, sec. 3, p. 21, col. 3 (National citizens for Communications Lobby official Nicholas Johnson opposes deregulation of broadcast industry, House Representative subcommittee hearing).

"Should More People Have a Voice in TV," New York Times, Nov. 19, 1978, sec. 2, p. 1, col. 4 (Interviews with TV industry spokesmen on whether public

affairs programming should be expanded; illustration).


Hosendolph, Ernest. "Regulators Let AT&T Offer Satellite Services," NewYork Times, July 20, 1979, sec. 4, p. 1, col. 4 (FCC lifts moratorium prohibiting American Telephone and Telegraph Company from offering satellite-only services, effective July 23. FCC had pronounced moratorium to allow other companies to establish potentially competitive services. AT&T has used its satellite system during last three years only to supplement conventional long-distance facilities. In separate action, FCC announces that it is re-examining merger of Gannett Company and Combined Communications in view of new Securities and Exchange Commission investigation into activities of American Financial Corporation, major Combined Communications shareholder. FCC also rejected petition by Nicholas Johnson to rule that stations broadcasting Ronald Reagan's daily commentary must allow responses by other presidential aspirants).


Schwartz, Tony. "Four Possible Ways Out of Public TV's Crisis," New York Times, Jan. 17, 1981, sec. 2, p.1, col. 1. [FT]

O' Connor, John J. "Law and Order With a Vengeance," New York Times, Dec. 6, 1981, sec. 2, p. 1, col. 3. [FT]


Bedell, Sally. "TV Citizens Group in Fiscal Trouble," New York Times, July 20, 1982, sec. C, p. 15, col. 1. [FT]


O' Connor, John J. "TV View: Spain Braces for Cable," New York Times, July 3, 1983, sec. 2, p. 17, col. 1. [FT]

O' Connor, John J. "Marathons, At the Met and on Foot," New York Times, Oct. 21, 1983, sec. C, p. 34, col. 4. [FT]

Salmans, Sandra. "Growing Debate Over Cable," New York Times, Nov. 26, 1983, sec. 1, p. 29, col 3. [FT]


Dougherty, Philip H. "Advertising: Taking a Hard Look At TV," New York Times, Oct. 25, 1984, sec. D, p. 25, col. 3. [FT]


O' Connor, John J. "The 'Vast Wasteland,' 25 Years Later," New York Times, May 4, 1986, sec. 2, p. 1, col. 2. [FT]

# # #

[End of Nicholas Johnson Bibliography and Appendices]

Return to Bibliography Main Page

Return to Nicholas Johnson Home Page